Evolution of Indian society

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A strange, rigid social structure is inflicting Indians and the Indian Society even today despite the start of a social revolution that was ignited by the British rule. The social evolution of India is proceeding following different paths in different regions of the country. The resistance to the change is also in operation. The process of the social evolution of India can be engineered to achieve the much needed change by improving the socio political awareness of the people and by devising methods to break the rigid social system called caste system.

Marx saw Indian society as stagnant and predicted a social revolution due to the British rule that introduced European Science, Railways and Telegraph which improved the mobility of the masses and communication among them. Dr. BR Ambedkar single handedly mobilized Dalit communities through out India and lead the social revolution that is an on going process today.

Stagnant Society

The observations [1857-1859] of Karl Marx on the Indian society are reproduced 1 here: “ We must not forget that this undignified, stagnatory and vegetative life, that this passive sort of existence evoked on the other part, in contradiction, wild, aimless, unbound forces of destruction, and rendered murder itself a religious rite in Hindustan.

We must not forget that these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste and by slavery that they subjugated man to external circumstances instead of elevating man to be the sovereign of circumstances that they transformed a self developing social state into never changing natural destiny and brought about a brutalizing worship of nature, ……….”

“India is held in English thralldom by an Indian army maintained at the cost of India? India then could not escape the fate of being conquered and the whole of her past history, if it be any thing, is the history of the successive conquests she has undergone. Indian society has no history at all, at least no known history. What we call its history is but the history of the successive intruders who founded their empires on the passive basis of that unresisting and unchanging society”. Marx further observes “a population of 200 million was thus kept in submission by a native army of 200000 officered by Englishmen and kept in check by an English force of 40000…. Of the whole of native Bengal army mustering about 80000 men, composed of about 28000 Rajputs, 23000 Brahmins, 13000 Mohammedans, 5000 Hindu inferior castes…..”

Marx predicted that electric telegraph, combination of railways and steam vessels, European science and English free trade will cause social revolution in India as they will disturb the village economy and improve communication among masses. Harris 2 describes communication as the nervous system of a society.

Treason and Conspiracy

Hindustan [India] is weakened by not only invasions but also by treason and conspiracy. Nanda kings [5 th and 4 th centuries BC] are from Sudra [Sishu Naga] community who were powerful enough to drive away Alexander the worst, the destroyer of the Taxila University. Chanakya [350BCE-283 BCE] who was displaced from Taxila University was given refuge by Dhana Nanda. But Chanakya got Dhana Nanda killed 3 and destroyed Nanda dynasty with the help of Chandra Gupta Mourya who is said to be an illegitimate child of one of the Nanda kings. Thus Mouryan dynasty was established. The traitor Chanakya authored his policy known as Chanakya Neeti a complete treatise. Here are two gems of his treatise: [1] Never leave the fire or the enemy un eliminated completely. [2] If you can’t win the enemy, join them [which the Aryans mostly followed unless the enemy is too weak].

Almost a century later Pushya Mitra Sunga 4 the chieftain of the army of the Mouryan King, Brhadrata [185 BC assassinated Brhadrata. Pushyamitra Sunga after talking over the power ordered the killing of Buddhist monks and declared awards for these killings.

The third personality who significantly weakened India is Shankaracharya [185CE-820CE] who is known 5,6 for his Advita [non dualism] philosophy and for the complete destruction of Buddhism in India and was responsible for the killing of about 100000 Jain monks in South India. He incorporated Buddhist practices [for example, vegetarianism] into Aryanism, attracting many Buddhists back to Aryanism and even abandoned original Vedic practice of animal sacrifice during Yagya. Shankaracharya lead the biggest conspiracy that changed the course of Indian history.

Aryanism as Religion

The famous quote 7 of Karl Marx on religion is “religion is the opiate of the people”. Sigmund Freud described 8 religion as a kind of universal obsessional neurosis.

Hinduism is schizophrenic in its philosophy or so it appears. On the one hand it talks of Vasudhika Kutumbam [the earth as one family] and on the other hand divides its society into castes degrading most of its members to below the level of slaves. At one level Adi Shakti the Goddess is the spring head of all the power and on the ground level the widows are burnt alive along the dead body of the husband, a ritual glorified as sati. The word Hindu is the corrupt pronunciation 9 of Sindhu. Persians tagged people living south of Sindhu River as Hindu. Thus the word Hindu comes from the Persians.

Karl Marx noted 1 about the communities of India as, “communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste and by slavery”. In fact the caste system of India is much worst than slavery. The origin of this slavery 10 is a hymn from Purusha Sukta [a chapter] of Rig Veda an Aryan scripture. It divides people into four main groups viz Brahman [the priests], Rajanya [the rulers], Vaishya [farmers or the traders] and the Sudras [the servents]. There is another fifth group called panchama [forest dwelling as well as the urban tribes today known as Dalits] who are untouchables and even useable. The Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda was fully elaborated by Manu in his Dharma

called Manu Smriti according to which Sudras who constitute 80 percent of Hindus are banned from reading or hearing the recital of Vedas. Only Brahmins have the right to study and interpret Vedas. Aryans distinguish themselves by wearing a cotton thread called Janyu. Thus Aryanism kept 80 percent of Hindus as illiterate for thousands of years probably since the fall of Harappan Civilization around 2000 BCE.

Aryanisation of Hindus

Initially the Aryan society was limited to Aryavarta the North West India. And Aryans slowly percolated down to South. How come the majority of Hindus accepted their position as Sudras the slaves? First, Aryans refined Prakrit [a spoken mixed language of Harappa?] and created Sanskrit an Indo European language. Sanskrit contains both Tamil and European words but was built on Tamil lexicon. Aryans used Sanskrit as their secret language not accessible to others. Sanskrit was never a spoken language of the masses. Secondly, the Aryans created an illusion that each caste is superior to the other among the Sudras and that false pride worked in keeping Sudra communities divided. The principle “divide and rule” originated from Manu Smriti which is wrongly attributed to the British. Third Aryans copied the local traditions, rituals and modified them [Aryanised] for reuse. Araynised local deities [Shiva, Kanoba, Betal, Jagannauth, etc] and took over the Temples of the natives through a planned conspiracy of temple transfer. Aryans also took over many Buddhist and Jain places of worship 6 or they destroyed them. Thus Aryanism was mixed with local Hindu religious traditions for the consumption of the natives. Mixing up of diametrically opposite beliefs has lead to schizophrenic philosophy.

As a part of the conspiracy Aryans took non Aryan local [Dravidian?] women as wives for example

11, 12, 13

Arundhati [a dalit women as per today’s norm and may be of ruling class of ancient times, taken as wife by sage Vasishta] , Satyavati [daughter of the chief of fishermen and the mother of Veda Vysa fathered by sage Parashar, in Mahabharat], Lalita [the daughter of the chief of Savara tribe married by an Aryan for taking over Jagannauth temple as a part of conspiracy] and so on. The continuation of this gene transfer approach may be noted from the activities of Nambudris in Kerala. It is noted 14 by Ravindran, “Another new moral doctrine was that only through Nambudri [Kerala variety of Aryans] seed would good king be born. Nambudris were able to get the kings, chieftains, and nobles to accept this doctrine….. It became unwritten law at this time that kings, who were not Nambudris, should be the sons [by extra marital relation with the queen] of Nambudris. Therefore princes of royal families were given education in smritis by the Nambudris and they developed a hold on the future kings even from their boyhood”.

The early medieval period was a period of proliferation and fragmentation of varna system 15 , numerous new tribes and castes were annexed to and incorporated within them. It is said 16 that there may be 2000 castes that exist today.

Aryans are a distinctly different group of Indians who [1] worship cow and use her products including urine and dung as food and medicine [2] are associated with horses in the past indulging in Yagya practices such as Ashwamedha which involved sex with a dead horse[3] are known fire worshipers through the ritual Yagya which used to be accompanied by the animal sacrifice, and the animal is replaced by lemon due to the influence of Buddhism.[4] preserved their belief system in their scriptures written in Sanskrit an Indo European Language [5] Aryans wear a cotton thread called Janyu to isolate themselves from other Hindus .

Class, Caste and Aryanism

Those who are not well acquainted with Indian society are likely to confuse caste as class. While all the so called lower castes are of lower class, the vice versa is not true. The following characteristics are attributed 17 to the caste system. [1] Endogamy that is confinement of marital ties within ones own caste [2] Commensality, rules and prescriptions about inter caste relations in regard to eating, drinking etc [3] Ritual status, birth ascriptions [4] Hereditary specialization, the continuation of occupations of one’s forefathers [5] Cultural differences, each caste has its own set of rules and regulations and also caste based Gods which makes each caste a different religion [6] Domination and power based on heredity of individuals. Caste system has been ingrained into the mass psychology of Indians through Manu Smriti which was a secret sacred scripture revealed only to Aryans. Manu Dharma [smriti] is a religion in itself quite different from Native Hinduism. It is interesting to note 15 that new sects which started against castes ended up as yet another caste [s].

Caste takes the form of class in the contemporary rural India. The upper layer Sudra communities are the agricultural land owners while the Dalits are the agricultural laborers. On and off we hear about the murder of Dalits and rape of their women. See for example the position in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Kamma and Reddy communities who are Sudras are farm owners while the Dalit communities Madiga and Mala are the agricultural laborers. In the village Karamchedu, Kamma land lords massacred Madigas who were their farm laborers. In another incident Reddy land lords massacred 18 mala laborers in the village Tsundur. In the Tsudur village the land holding of Malas is 78 acres while Reddys own 2420 acres. Both Kamma and Reddy communities are Sudra. Despite murderous oppression the Dalits face, Mala and Madiga communities see each other as enemies. And that is the riddle of the caste!

A conflict is on going between Mala and Madiga Dalit communities of Andhra Pradesh due to the demand of the Madiga community to have separate reservation. Their contention is that Mala community is cornering more benefits out of reservations at the cost of Madiga community which appears true. It is also true that the elite [descendants of IAS, doctors, engineers and politicians] among Dalits irrespective of Mala or Madiga are cornering the reservation benefits. If providing separate reservation quota to the Madiga community is justified then it is also justified to provide reservations to each caste independently at national level which is impossible. Logically classification of Dalits based on the economic status into two groups [or more] and giving preference to the poorer group [say A group] apparently is the solution and the richer group [say B group] may be considered only when suitable candidates are not available from group A. In any case group A can’t be denied reservations totally as the Dalit reservation quotas are not filled up at national level often saying that suitable candidates are not found. Unfortunately leaders of Mala and Madiga communities do not consider classification of Dalits on the basis of socio economic status as a solution and this is the central enigma of caste.

Indeed caste has psychological dimension. Transactional analysis 2 distinguishes an individual into three different personalities: one of a small “child” dominated by feelings, the other of a self righteous “parent” and the third of a reasoning, logical grownup “adult”. These different personalities within the same individual may be viewed as different locations in the mind/brain. The parent is a huge collection of recordings of unquestioned or imposed external events in the brain. Admonitions, rules, and laws a child hears from his parents or parent substitutes are recorded in the “parent”. These rules and laws are recorded permanently as truth whether they are good or bad as these rules and laws came from a source of all security. Once recorded this data can be replayed and has life long influence. Collective and personal modes of behavior are transmitted from one generation to another through the “parent”. Thus what has been told or what we have experienced as “caste culture” in our child hood is permanently recorded in the “parent” part of our personality and gets replayed as we pass through the events of life. Aryanism ingrains caste hierarchy in the “parent” of the individuals through Manu Smriti and other scriptures of Aryans which have become an unquestioned secure source of authority. These recordings unfortunately can not be erased but fortunately can be switched off through conscious effort of the “adult” by reasoning.

Who were Aryans?

Ambedkar, assuming 19 that the authors of Rig Veda are Arayns, identifies two groups of Aryans based on the internal evidence from Rig Veda and that these two groups of Aryans are not only different but inimical to each other.

Dr. Ambedkar further quotes Sir Herbert Risley who on the basis of cephalic index concluded that people of India were a mixture of four different races : [a] Aryan [b] Dravidian [c] Mongolian and [d] Scynthian and Dr Guha who concluded that Indian people are composed of two main racial stocks : [a] long-headed and [b] short headed. The home of long headed race is traced to Europe round about the Mediterranean basin who spoke Aryan language and the home of short headed Alpine race is Asia some where in the Himalayas who also spoke Aryan language. Ambedkar suggests peaceful immigration of these Aryan communities to India to settle in the unoccupied territory rather than an Aryan Invasion.

Recent genetic studies 20 on Indian caste groups [with all its limitations] suggest that the so called upper castes are genetically nearer to East Europeans via Y chromosomes [contributed by males alone] where as their mitochondrial DNA [solely contributed by females] is proto Asian [Dravidian?] which is common with the so called lower communities.

If Aryan Invasion Theory is to be replaced with Aryan migration then the question as to why Aryans migrated to India that too around [or before] 4000 BCE demands an answer. During that period Harappan Civilization 21,22,23 initiated by Dravidians [as indicated by burial system, use of Tali like objects, existence of Brahui a Dravidian language even now in use in the Harappan region and finally the amenability of Harappan script/ pictograms for interpretation using Tamil a Dravidian language] was flourishing and it is natural for people from undeveloped areas to migrate to developed regions as migrant laborers or traders in search of food and stable lives. Europeans were hunters and gatherers during that period and hence their arrival as traders may be ruled out. The word Arya may be a compound word as Ari + Ayya. Ayya or iah are used as a suffixs to names as a mark of respect in Dravidian languages Tamil, Kannada and also Telugu. For example the name Subbayya which is Subba + Ayya. Ari in Telugu means 24 the limit or the boundary of a village. Arya or Aryya is pronounced in Tamil [or in Malayalam] as Aryan, as in the case of Raja pronounced as Rajan. Thus Arya or Aryans might be the people living on the boundaries of villages guarding the villages. It is also usual in Telugu language to add Varu to words to represent a group or as a further mark of respect. Thus Aryan + Varu [or Ayyan + Varu which has the same meaning] becomes Aryanvaru which is cognate with Ayyanar. In Tamil Nadu the horse riding, sword wielding Ayyanar statues are found 25 on the outskirts of villages which are deified and are the family deities of Ayyar Brahmins. This also explains why Vedas appear to be of the work of rural/ pastoral people of Harappa rather than the urban Harappans. Rural ayyanars might have become prominent after the destruction of Harappan Civilization.

It is important to note that the development of Harappan Civilization is due to the development of agriculture, pottery, metallurgy and building of boats which are the professions of the present day Sudra communities.

Social Revolution in India

The British rule of India indeed ignited the process of self development of Indian communities. Christian missionaries started schools and hospitals which did not show discrimination between Dalits, Sudras and Brahmins. The missionaries converted Dalit communities and others to Christianity. Dalits were admitted into the government/ missionary schools though there was discrimination shown by Hindu teachers. Many Dalit Christians took up higher positions in government jobs and educational institutions. However the progress of Dalit Christians is limited to the spread of Christianity.

British education also produced elegant Brahmin leaders like Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru who later became the Prime Minister of India. Nehru was a sympathizer of socialism and introduced mixed economy having both public and private sector industries. Mahatma Gandhi the leader of the freedom struggle, who is now known as the Father of the Indian Nation is a product of British education. Gandhi was thrown out of a first class rail way compartment by whites in South Africa just because he is dark skinned though he had a valid ticket. This incident must have given Gandhi enough wisdom to empathize with the problems of the Dalits.

Dr. Bhima Rao Ambedkar a Dalit himself also had his higher education in London. He struggled to understand the origin and the problems related to caste. He authored several books to guide the Dalit movement in India. He fought for the rights of Dalits and was successful in introducing reservations for Dalits in politics, education and jobs proportionate to the population of the Dalits. The later governments were forced to introduce reservations to the Other Backward Castes [OBC] communities who are Sudras.

Dr. Ambedkar was invited by the Prime Minister Nehru to join his cabinet as Law Minister though Dr. Ambedkar was not a member of the Indian National Congress Party which led the freedom struggle. Dr. Ambedkar served as the Law Minister of India for a brief period. Dr. Ambedkar realized that leading the Dalit movement is more important than serving as law minister. While through these struggles Dr. Ambedkar realized that Aryans will never give an equal status to Dalits. Ambedkar then directed Dalits to convert to Buddhism. In one single day 400000 Dalits took Deeksha, the conversion. Today because of Ambedkar many Dalits and the OBC communities could break the shackles of caste slavery. This struggle is continuing.

In the state of Tamil Nadu political parties influenced by the Dravidian philosophy of Rama Swamy Naiker captured the political power. The leaders of the Dravidian movement are from Sudra communities. Rama Swamy Naiker is said to have told, “If you face a snake and a Brahmin, kill the Brahmin and leave the snake”. Today there are two Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu which are coming to power alternatively eliminating the National Parties. Dravidian movement is limited to Tamil Nadu only.

Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia through his socialist movement in North India developed the political leaders mainly from Sudra communities. Several of the followers of Lohia are national leaders in the contemporary India. BSP a party headed by Dalits is in power in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Strong communist movement in certain pockets of India also empowered Dalits but the impact is low.

Caste and Politics

KL Sharma notes 17 that abolition of Zamindari and Jagirdari system gave birth to a new class of independent peasants from upper strata of Sudras who now wield considerable political power.

Anil Bhatt observed 26 that industrialization has [a] created new occupations which does not fall in the frame work attached with traditional caste system [b] increased urban areas and western culture that resulted in reduced caste tensions. The following table shows 27 the increasing political representation of Dalits and Sudras in the North India as indicated during the UP assembly elections of 1993.

S. No Party % SC/ST %OBC

1JD 39.5 41.67

2BSP 40.739.5


4INC 21.819.9

5 BJP22.420.24

Today [2009] Sudras are ruling India who captured power through different routes. All most all of them unfortunately are engulfed in corruption and are seldom different from the previous leadership. The younger generation is looking beyond castes and is looking for clean leadership.


Dr. Ambedkar initially tried to reform Aryanism which Brahmins of his time resisted. Having failed in his attempts he opted for Buddhism almost at the end of his career. By that time the reservation schemes were finalized only for those Dalits who show their religion as Hindu. Unwittingly this is the most un secular aspect of Dalit reservations as Dalits were never a part of Aryan Hinduism and Dalits can restore their self respect only from out side Hinduism. Thus the reservations effectively curtailed the religious freedom of Dalits to migrate into religions [Buddhism, Christianity, Islam etc] that restore their self respect, as even today Dalits are not allowed into Hindu Temples for example Sreenath Jee temple at Nathdwara. At some places Dalits [Meenakshi Puram in Tamil Nadu and Khandmal in Orissa for example] even went to the extent of fore going the benefits of reservations in favor of opting other religions such as Islam or Christianity.

Aryanised Hindu governments however passed laws that prohibit religious conversions of Dalits under one pretext or the other. Hindutva organizations are using terror and massacred Christians and Muslims to prevent the conversion of Dalits into other religions since the demolition of Babri Mazzid. Surprisingly these acts are carried out not by the Aryans but by the Aryanised Hindus who are from Sudra community.

The same Sudra community of Sambhuka 28 , killed by Rama for attempting to gain knowledge according to Ramayana. The same Sudra communities whom Goswamy Tulasi Das designated 29 as tadan ke adhikari meaning worth only to take beatings! The Doha from Tulasi Ramayan goes like this; dol, gavar, shudra, pashu, naree sakal, tadan ke adhikai.

This shameless state of affairs is a result of passivity of Dalit and Sudra communities. Dalit/ Sudras have a two fold task before them. First, they need to fight for reservation benefits irrespective of their religion and second de Aryanisation of Hindu religion by taking up the position of priests which are now occupied exclusively by Brahmins by an un written law.

Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu is in the direction of de Aryanisation of Hindus. In Andhra Pradesh the movements lead by Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Chowdary [1887-1943], Goparaju Ramachandra Rao [1902-1975], and the “no caste approach” of Puchalapalli Sundaraiah [1913-1985] are in that direction. NT Rama Rao as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh abolished the system of inheritance of the position of karanam [village officer] by a particular community.

Nehruvian economics or the mixed economic policies of Jawahar Lal Nehru lead him to establish large scale industries in public sector. Public sector enterprises had to implement employment reservations for Dalits and Tribes though reluctantly. Despite strong resistance from within the managements to implement reservations the schemes were partly successful because of which Dalits and Tribes could progress into the modern era of science and technology. This should have been an impossible task had the industry been completely in the hands of private sector. Recently when the debate, if employment reservations for OBC communities are to be extended to private sector also, it was a Parsee industrialist who first opposed it forgetting that he is the descendant of the refugees from Iran who were treated well by the natives. Extending reservations to the private sector is crucial for the growth of the weaker sections. Industrialists in private sector who oppose reservations should be educated to respect the law of the land or leave the land for the good. Will India fall down if these business people leave the country? It is time for empowering Dalit and Sudra communities to establish businesses of their own which will make them self sufficient and independent.

Redistribution of agricultural lands among landless rural Dalits and other weaker sections will reduce caste tensions in the villages. Landless rural Dalits need to be encouraged to acquire farm lands by providing [a]long term interest free loans[b] subsidy [c] waiving off the registration fees payable to the Governments in the same way Governments encourage industrialists in the urban areas. Organising Dalit and marginal farmers into cooperatives on the lines of Amul Dairy is crucial for achieving real empowerment of rural Dalits.

All the measures so far discussed may empower the weaker sections to some extent or the other but can’t remove the caste from the Indian society. Caste is a perturbation of the natural evolution of the Indian society as caste is driven by the selfishness where as natural evolution is to be driven by altruism. The final annihilation of caste can be achieved through inter caste marriages. Those who oppose caste based reservations should realize that caste based reservations will exist as long as caste exists. Recently the communist lead Nepal Government has provided 30 attractive financial incentives for inter caste marriage couples to the tune of up to R/s 100000. There are such schemes in various states but are not very attractive. It may be hoped that the move by Nepal Government will ignite the imagination of the Government of India. It is also important to note that inter caste marriages among Dalit communities or among Sudra communities are equally important.

Closing Remarks

India is suffering from the inflictions of an obnoxious social system called Varna vyavastha or caste system imposed on her by Aryanism. Caste is based on the selfishness of both the individual and the group and hence is perturbing the natural process of social evolution of India towards altruism or altruistic society.

[1] The necessity of the day is to de Aryanise Native Hindus [those who do not wear Janyu] while Aryans [those who wear Janyu] may freely follow their religious beliefs.

[2] The worst sufferers of the caste system are Native Indians (the so called Dalits) and other weaker sections of rural India. Empowering these sections of Indians to acquire farm lands through well planned schemes and organizing them into cooperatives can kick start the process of emancipation of these deprived classes.

[3] Caste based reservations need to be continued till the caste exists and these reservations should be extended to private sector also by law. The reservation schemes may be reviewed/ reformed giving due weightage to the socio economic status rather than social or economic status by the Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

[4] Ultimately the annihilation of caste is possible only through inter caste marriages and accordingly schemes that encourage inter caste marriages should be made operative.


[1] Marx, K and Engels, F, The First Indian War of Independence 1857-1859, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1978.

[2] Thomas, A Harris, ‘I am OK – you are OK “, Sterling paper backs, New Delhi.

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushyamitra

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara

[6] Thundy. Z, http://www.shelterbelt.com/KJ/khdravidians.html

[7] Marx- Engels, “On Religion”, Progress publishers, Moscow, 1976.

[8] Sigmund Freud, “An auto biographical study”, L&V Woolf, London, 1935.

[9] Manorama year book, Malayala Manorama, Kottayam, 1989.

[10] Bose. NK, “The Structure of Hindu Society”, Orient Longman Limited, New Delhi, 1975.

[11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madiga

[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyavati

[13] Chitrasen Pasayat, Orissa Review, May- 2006.



[14] Ravindran, TK, Asan and Social Revolution in Kerala, Kerala Historical Society, Trivandrum, 1972.

[15] Ram Saran Sharma, “Social changes in Early Medieval India”, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1976.

[16] O’ Malley.LSS, “India’s Social Heritage”, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1976.

[17] Sharma, KL. The Changing Rural Stratification System: A comparative study of six villages in Rajasthan, India, Orient Longman Ltd, New Delhi, 1974.

[18] Sailaja, K and Sarma, VS, Justice eludes Tsundur Dalits, Indian Express, 3/12/1992.

[19] Ambedkar, BR, Who were the Shudras? , Thackers, Bombay, 1970.

[20] Michael Bamshad, et al, Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations, Genome Research, 2001. http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Bamshad2001.pdf

[21] http://www.harappa.com/indus/1.html

[22] http://www.harappa.com/arrow/indus-agricultural-terms.pdf

[23] http://www.harappa.com/script/parpola1.html

[24] Narasimha Reddy, P, “ Polysemous Dictionary in Telugu”, Pratibha Publications, Hyderabad, 2006.

[25] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyanar

[26] Anil Bhatt, “ Caste, Class & Politics”, Manohar Book Services, Delhi, 1975.

[27] Srinivas. MN, “The cultural revolution moves north”, Indian Express, New Delhi, 12-12-1993.

[28] Chandan Mitra, “ Laloo Yadav consummate dream merchant”, The Hindusthan Times, Delhi, 26-9-1992.

[29] Goswami Tulasidas, “Ram Charita Manas”, Sunderkand, Doha: 58, Chopai 3, page855, Geeta Press, Gorakhpur, Vikram year, 2040.

[30] http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-07-13/south-asia/28197988_1_inter-caste-marriage-marriage-registration-dalits-and-non-dalits


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  57. Reality of the Self
  58. నా కధ
  59. అనివార్యం
  60. ఒకనాటి కల
  61. మార్పు
  62. శేష దుష్ప్రభావం
  63. ఆటవికులు
  64. మట్టి దిండు
  65. వేకువ ఝామున
  66. శక్తి
  67. సమీక్ష
  68. లెక్కలు
  69. వెన్నెట్లో పూల పందిట్లో
  70. నిశ్చయమైన విషయం
  71. అధ్భుతమైన స్వప్నం
  72. నిన్నటి అందం
  73. Eddington’s Psycho-Syndrome
  74. అగ్ని ప్రక్షాళన
  75. వెర్రి వాడు
  76. వాన
  77. వర్షం
  78. తెల్లవారని తెలివి
  79. యశస్వి
  80. సునామీ
  81. యాక్ ఛి
  82. చింతన
  83. మర్దిన్చవే నా చెల్లీ
  84. హిందోళ
  85. స్వర్గం
  86. గుప్త చిత్రం
  87. దేవుడు లేని దగ్గర
  88. ఎడారి
  89. మహా మార్గం
  90. నేను, పర్వతం
  91. గోడు
  92. సన్న్ద్ది
  93. వెయ్యి దివ్వెలు
  94. అరణ్య రాజ్యం
  95. తీరని కోర్క
  96. భారతి
  97. వెన్నెట్లో దిగులు
  98. కాకి గోల
  99. విశ్వరూపం
  100. సింగూరు
  101. ఒప్పుకుంది
  102. ప్రియురాలి అందం
  103. శివరంజని
  104. కవితా వేదన
  105. దుమారం
  106. గావు కేకలు
  107. తాళం లేని ద్వారం
  108. అంతంలేని చోటు
  109. మృత సముద్రం
  110. కల్లుకుండ
  111. ఈత చెట్టు
  112. నేస్తాలు
  113. తను
  114. శఫరి
  115. The paradox of life
  116. Castes in the Court
  117. Genopsych
  118. The properties of living systems
  119. Plants and human health
  120. Evolution of Human Societies
  121. Sindollu
  122. Seetha Katha
  123. Venter builds Wald’s machine
  124. The primacy of DNA as a unit of life
  125. The drive and the direction of evolution
  126. Aryan, Arya and Ayyanar
  127. Capacitor like electronic structures of DNA
  128. Thorleif Wathne
  129. Random Birds
  130. Phosphates in agriculture
  131. Poturaju
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