<sec><heading>Bhillu Nadu</heading><para></para> <para>Bhillu Nadu</para> <para><bold>Towards casteless, classless, compassionate India </bold></para> <para><bold>Part- 1</bold></para> <para>The People of India</para> <para>Indian population genetic studies (Reich <italic>et al</italic>) tell us that the present day Indian population is a genetic mix up of two founder groups one genetically similar to the people of Middle East, Central Asia and Europe (MECAE) and the second group is not similar to any other population outside India that is they are Native Indians (NI). These genetics studies also suggest that the major genetic mix up of these two groups started happening around 2200 – 2000 BCE. That period incidentally coincides with the collapse of Indus Valley Civilization and also the entry of Indo – European Languages into India (Atkinson et al) from the present day Turkey. The Indo European speaking descendants of MECAE and Native Indians called themselves Arya (cognate with Aryan) in Rig Veda the Aryan hymns composed around 1700- 1500 BCE that mostly describe religious rituals/ praise of Nature or Gods representing Natural forces. The studies of Reich et al are in line with the earlier studies of Bamshad et al. Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha, around 500 – 400 BCE) the greatest spiritual leader and philosopher the world has ever seen discouraged the Vedic Rituals particularly those involving animal sacrifice. The cream of Indian society those days took to vegetarianism under the influence of Buddha and Jainism. The dominance of Buddhism was not taken lightly by the Aryanists. The genetic mixing of MECAE people and NI that continued up to 500 CE suddenly stopped according to population genetics leading to endogamous caste structures that denigrate large sections of the Indian Society as Shudra the servant class. The period 500 CE also coincides with the appearance of Manu Smriti, revised versions of Ramayana and Mahabharat (preexisting tribal folk tales), Aryan Purana scriptures to reinforce Manu Smriti. Aryanists identified their region of rule as Aryavarta the abode of Aryans in North India. Dictates of Manu Smriti were so forcefully enforced that those Aryans who did not comply were relegated as untouchables. The eye opening example is that of Meghwal community having 60.3% MECAE gene markers. Jat who are Shudras are Indo – Aryan people. Aryanists destroyed Buddhism and Jainism not only in North India but also in the South India.</para> <para>Aryanist beliefs were percolated to South India and many communities were annexed as Shudra communities the servant class to Aryanists. Many free living Native Indian communities who did not comply with the Aryan scriptures were kept outside Aryan society. Karl Marx described caste ridden Indian Society as slaverous. Marx also predicted a social revolution in India due to the introduction of European Science, Railways and other communication systems by the British Raj. Indian Marxists however failed to lead the social revolution. It is Dr. BR Ambedkar the greatest son of India who led the social revolution which is still continuing. While conservative organization such as Rastriya Swayam Sevak acknowledges the contribution of Baba Saheb Ambedkar to the social progress of India, Indian communists are still clueless and blind to the ongoing social revolution. The regions dominated by communist movement during and after the freedom movement, however inadvertently strengthened Native Indians and Feudal Shudra castes to oppose Aryanist practices and so is the influence of Christianity. The two major communist parties in India today are bereft of intellect/wisdom and are just pseudo communists.</para> <para></para> <para>Indian History in Brief</para> <para>Marxist View: The history of India is the history of invasions. So much truth! However if we penetrate deeper the history of India is also one of Aryanist treason and betrayal. The strategy is cut the diamond with diamond, slow poisoning, kinking the psych via mythologies, intrude and destroy like viral infection. Take for example the case of Chanukya who destroyed the mighty Nanda dynasty of Shudra community who unwittingly gave refuge to him. Chanukya brought up Chandra Gupta Mourya another Shudra to destroy Nandas! Destroy Shudras using Shudras. Chanukya is said to have slow poisoned a young girl (Visha Kanya) to use her against his enemies! Even Alexander “the worst” could not dare to face Nandas but Chanukya could do it as internal enemy. Pushyamitra Sunga beheaded Brhadrata, the last King of Mouryan dynasty. Sunga intruded into Mouryan kingdom as Senapati and destroyed Mouryans. The very Hindu Psych was poisoned by Aryan Guru Shankaracharya who established Aryanism destroying Buddhism/ Jainism yet Aryanists adopted vegetarianism under the pressure of Buddha/ Jain religions! Buddha’s influence was so strong that Aryanists had to deify Buddha as Aryan God.</para> <para>Aryanist rulers/ elite hardly fought the invaders. Rather they colluded with the invaders. They gave their women to the invaders in marriage. Chanukya advised “If you can’t win the enemy join him”. An example from the recent past as noted by Marx is that of the British Army (East India Company, Bengal) composed of Brahmins, Rajputs and Mohammadans in entirety with rare exceptions. British effectively used this army with the armies of local rulers or the gundas of the Jamindars appointed by British to exploit the farmer and other artisan communities.</para> <para>On the other hand it is Natives who stood by the Nation at times of crisis. Gadaria Lohar community is a spectacular example, who are still nomadic after losing the battle of Chittodgad and some of them migrated to Andhra region known today as Lambadi community! Punja Bhil built Tribal Army for Rana Pratap Singh when Rana fled to the forests. Kali Bhai Khat a Bhil lady fought the British police with sword to release freedom fighters tied to a police Jeep. Brave Santal revolt is a freedom fight that faced the British police and the Gundas of the Jamindars appointed by the British. Manyam Dora Tribes gave shelter to Alluri Seeta Rama Raju fighting the British along with him. The contribution of native communities in defending the nation had not been recorded properly. One such case is that of legendry Jhalkari Bai Kori who fought side by side with the Rani of Jhansi against the British army. Most of the information about her is preserved in the local folk tales of Bundelkhand. Women from native communities (Chakali Ilamma, Yerukula Gandemma etc) were active participants in Telangana, armed peasant rebellion that resulted in to redistribution of agricultural lands.</para> <para>MK Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Gaffer Khan and many other leaders fought for the freedom of India from the British rule through nonviolent methods. Bhagat Singh, Chandra Sekhar and others fought for the same cause through other means. The greatest son of India Dr. BR Ambedkar had two fold targets on the one hand he has to ensure the liberation of Natives from Aryanist clutches and on the other hand he has to see that his liberation movement is not a hurdle to the ongoing struggle for freedom. In order to strengthen his ideas he had to research by extensively reading to develop a philosophy and literature that will energize his followers so that the struggle is taken forward. Dr Ambedkar had to concede to the wishes of MK Gandhi many a time just to ensure that freedom movement is not weakened and at the same time he successfully convinced MK, Jawahar, and Patel for the scheme of reservations for his people through the constitution of India. Dr. Ambedkar wanted a peaceful post -Independence India by opting for Buddhism instead of Islam or Christianity. The choice of choosing Christianity or Islam is still there for his followers, the Natives if they want so. Nothing can stop the Native Indians from conversions to Islam or Christianity if they desire so, neither a kinked law by the government nor the violence by Aryanists can stop conversions.</para> <para></para> <para>Current Political Status- India</para> <para>India today is still suffering from communal and feudal caste forces. The failure of communists on the one hand and the failure of Ambedkarite, Dravidian and a variety of Socialists on the other hand resulted into the spectacular victory (2014) of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) an Aryanist political party of clearly anti minorities agenda with the face of a leader from other backward classes. Indian National Congress with its most corrupt faces is routed out. The younger generation is for good governance and against corruption. Neither the left nor the Ambedkarites could convince the youth that they stand for high integrity and principles. In Andhra the pseudo communists colluded with the parties of the feudal castes naturally. It is unfortunate that the Native Indians do not have their representative political party that can attract all Native Communities. Bahujan Samajvadi Party (BSP) in the North that represents Natives is still young yet is not very different from feudal parties in its core economic policy. To some extent BSP lost the faith of Muslims in Utter Pradesh in the recent parliamentary elections (2014).</para> <para>Majority of Native Indians who enjoyed reservation to reach highest government positions have become as corrupt as others and as if it is not enough they are bidding + 200 million rupees for obtaining a chance to contest for a MLA seat from Feudal Parties and + 500 million for a chance to contest for a parliament seat. Who will tell them that they are bound to serve the Nation honestly irrespective of what others are doing. Today a vote can be purchased just for Rs 1000/-. Where is the National interest? “Nation First” should be the policy of all the political parties of India and hence should stop purchasing votes as purchasing votes is a heinous crime against the Nation.</para> <para></para> <para>Corruption</para> <para>Corruption is the entropy of economic system. No system runs at cent per cent efficiency and there will be wastages. The measure of wastage/disorder is entropy. Thus corruption can be reduced to a great extent but can’t be eliminated completely. Today corruption is everywhere in the Nation. As such corruption was never an election issue, as voters take money to cast their vote and political parties do not mind to bribe and intoxicate the voters. It is said that illegally earned money stashed in the foreign banks is more than 700 lakh crores! Huge amounts of corrupt money, is transacted on daily basis through hawala market to bribe politicians and government officers by the business people. The illegally earned money is hidden as benami properties as agricultural lands and as properties in the cities. Black money is shown as income in agriculture as that income is not taxable. This prompts taxing agricultural income over and above 20 lakhs per annum.</para> <para>Government should make laws to nationalize benami lands/black money of all sorts and distribute the same to the inadequately empowered Native Indians/poorer sections.</para> <para>The biggest threat to the Nation is the black money flowing from the corporate houses to the politicians and the political parties for electioneering. These corporations are now in a position to control the Government policies in their favor so that they can plunder the riches of India. As a result of the corporate plunder the very vitals of democratic rule are paralyzed which is nothing than treason. The only way to deter this trend is capital punishment to the leaders of corporate houses/business groups. Hang them for weakening the country and nationalize their and their descendant’s properties.</para> <para></para> <para>The Problem of Castes</para> <para>As we noted that the social groups of India were made endogamous castes since the onset of Manu Smriti around 500 CE to establish Aryanism. Native Indians who did not comply with were pushed down socially and economically. Their lands were taken over and taxed. Santal revolt during British Raj is a good example. Most of the Natives being tolerant they absorbed all the ignominy. Forest living Tribes from whom the castes branched out maintained some sort of independence yet participated in the national activities whenever required. For examples Punja Bhil supporting Rana Pratap Singh during his fight with Akbar, Kali Bhai Khat (a Bhil Lady) fighting British during Raj, Dora Tribes of Manyam fighting the British along with Alluri Sitarama Raju. But the contribution of these Tribes, were never acknowledged.</para> <para>For Native Indians caste is not only a socio- psychological problem but also a problem of class. On the social front they have to rise against the lies and oppression of Aryanists and on the economic front they have to stand against Feudal Castes who are essentially Shudras who by definition of Manu are servants to Aryanists and priests. Unfortunately the Feudal Shudra communities seldom revolt against their religious masters an exception being the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu. A similar movement by Tripuraneni did not takeoff in Andhra Pradesh though he is a source of inspiration to few even today.</para> <para>Caste is a religion in itself. The religion… is the opiate of the masses said Marx. Freud thought that religion and neurosis are similar products of the human mind: neurosis, with its compulsive behavior, is “an individual religiosity”, and religion, with its repetitive rituals, is a “universal obsessional neurosis”. Caste induces compulsive behavior. Caste is neurosis, a disease.</para> <para>Mixing up of people genetically as was happening prior to Manu Smriti is the only way to a casteless India. Dr. BR Ambedkar said, ‘’You cannot build anything on the foundations of caste. You cannot build up a Nation you cannot build up a morality. Anything that you will build on the foundations of caste will crack, and will never be a whole.” A strong government policy that encourages inter- caste marriages with social protection and substantial financial assistance to the tune of Rs 500000 should be put in place. They be provided with protection and a free house.</para> <para></para> <para>Agriculture and Land Reforms</para> <para>India is agriculture based country. In the name of helping the farmers Government of India is providing 100000 crores of rupees as subsidy on fertilizers. This huge amount goes to the fertilizer manufacturing/trading companies who in turn are passing on the amounts to the foreign companies which land up as profits there. The Government agencies provide subsidies to select fertilizers that suit the business interest of the companies involved. In the name of protecting the farmers Government controls the production and distribution of fertilizers through “Fertilizer Control Order” FCO. FCO has become a weapon in the hands of fertilizer companies that are in collusion with Government to hamper any attempt to introduce new fertilizers/technologies. Despite huge profits and subsidies fertilizer companies failed to invent new and effective fertilizers. For example Phosphate Rich Organic Manure (PROM) is not put on equal playing ground with chemical phosphatic fertilizers vis a vis subsidy though PROM is (1) approved and covered under FCO (2) doubly effective than Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) which means that subsidy load on the Government due to phosphatic fertilizers can be reduced to half in due course. This criminal subsidy game should be stopped by providing assistance to the farmer directly and give the farmer the freedom as to which fertilizer he wants to purchase.</para> <para>Another important observation is the reducing Agricultural Work Force AWF. Rural people who used to work as Agricultural laborers are now finding opportunities as skilled carpenters, beldar mestries, electricians in the urban areas with higher remuneration. This also is enabling them to avoid caste/class conflicts in the villages. The situation may worsen in the coming days. Ensuring adequate wages to AWF/ adequate profits to the farmer, land reforms ensuring only tillers own the lands or the owners adequately pay the tillers, land sealing are probable solutions.</para> <para>Agricultural land prices have gone up as business people/ NRIs/land sharks started purchasing as a mode of investment. The agricultural land prices near the cities have gone up ten times or more as land sharks enter into registered agreement by paying some advance and further sell the land on the basis of the agreement. The farmer the real owner gets nothing in the bargain! Govt. should declare intermittent agreements as null and void. All benami lands purchased/occupied by the corrupt politicians/officers/business people be identified and distributed to the lean farmers. The sale of lands agricultural or urban by the owners to other private parties must be banned. In case the owner of land wants to sell his land the same shall be acquired by the government at predetermined prices and redistribute the land to the people below the poverty line on lease basis for a stipulated period depending on the purpose of land use.</para> <para></para> <para>Nation First</para> <para></para> <para>The basic religion of India is the religion of Native Hindus (same as Native Indians) involving worship of seven sister deities with one brother. Each village calls these deities with the name of the village in most of the cases. The brother of the seven sisters is Potu Raju who became Pashu Pati in Aryanised version. Potu Raju is same as Siva in Dravidian culture. Matangi of Natives is Meenakshi or one of the Dasha Maha Vidya in Aryanised version. Aryans did not have a religion of their own when arrived in to India and adopted the Native beliefs and later Aryanised them to suit their interests. Interestingly Vedic Aryanism (Vedas and Upanishads) is quite opposite to post Vedic or Puranic (Manu Smriti, Puranas, revised versions of Ramayana & Bharatam) Aryanism. Vedic Aryanism talks of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (see also Tamil Sangam literature) Aham Brahmasmi, and such great integrative concepts whereas puranic Aryanism talks of disintegration (dividing Indians into Castes and denigrating Shudra communities as servants to Aryan Castes), lie laced myths/puranas etc. Buddha, Jain and Sikh religions are Hindu/ Indian in nature. Puranic Aryanists, adopted Buddhist practices such as vegetarianism and even gone to the extent of making Buddha their God. Islam and Christianity arrived much recently and are Indianised. India being a secular country all religions have their right to exist. Politicizing religions is not in the interest of the Nation. All social groups will progress if the Nation progresses and vice versa.</para> <para>But what was India ruled by Aryan King Bharata probably within Aryavarta (limited to certain parts of North India) before the arrival of Aryans around 2000 BCE? It should be Bhil Nadu or Bhillu Nadu in all its fairness. Bhillu is cognate with Villu the bow with which Bhils (and other tribes) are familiar in daily life. After all it is Bhils (Villuvar/Meenavar in the South) and other genetically related Dravidian speaking Native Indians that started Indus Valley Civilization around 9000 years ago. Yerukula and Mutharaj communities are understood to have branched out from Bhils. Geneticists estimate that Native Indians evolved 60000 years ago and are not genetically similar to any other group outside India. Indian culture is essentially of Native Indians either in its Native form or in its Aryanised version. Religion should not be confused with individual spirituality.</para> <para></para> <para>Women in India</para> <para></para> <para>Aryanists show scant respect to women. Ramayana version of Goswamy Tulasi Das tells that Beasts, Drums, Shudras and women are meant for beating only! Burning a widow on the pyres of the husband is a practice with Aryanist sanction. Abandoning widows after tonsuring at Brindavan is also a practice with Arynist sanction. On the other hand Native communities respect their women. Re- marriage is an accepted practice among Native Communities. Many communities in India abort or abandon their girl child. A society that disrespects its women is an obnoxious society. We hear rape cases on daily basis in India. Impetus is to be given to women’s education. 50% of the Government Jobs and in private sector are to be reserved for women. The progress of women is the progress of India.</para> <para>Women never had an honorable position in Aryan India. They were made to have sex with dead horses, allowed (or forced) to beget children outside marriage up to a level of “swairini” or even above that and Tulasi Ramayan calls them “tadan ki adhikari”. Aryanism sanctions polygamy. We see that legacy even today with the news of rape of women on daily basis. Capital punishment must be made the norm in the rape cases.</para> <para></para> <para>Self – Rule and Tribal Communities</para> <para>Schedule 5 of the constitution of India provides self – rule for the tribal regions. The Tribal leaders are directly under the Governor rather than the chief ministers of the state. Despite most patriotic movements of the tribals of India they are ignored and their properties are looted with impunity. However the resistance of the Tribe of Niamgiri is an exemplary one.</para> <para>Every Indian should think as to why Tribal regions are the places of terrorism? The only solution is implementation of Schedule 5 of the constitution of India giving self- rule to the tribes through tribal councils under the governors.</para> <para>Caste Based Reservations</para> <para></para> <para>Baba Saheb Ambedkar ensured that the socially exploited classes are brought up through special channels by providing reservations in education, government jobs and in political representation. Though these reservations were not honestly implemented because of which sufficient social progress could not be achieved, some who could take advantage of the reservations progressed and their children too are claiming reservations at the cost of the rural classes. If this trend continues there will be elite among the Native Indians who will join the exploiters. To tell the truth some have already joined the exploiters for example former IAS/IPS and other class 1 officers, engineers and doctors are joining politics by paying huge amounts to the political parties of the exploiters. As a result these neo bourgeois under the guise of dalits are indeed hurdles to the social progress of Natives. Descendants of the generation that reached high positions (such as IAS, IPS, Class 1 officers, engineers after graduation in engineers, MBBS, MLA/ MP, etc) enjoying reservation benefits be categorized in B group and rural and poor Native Indians be grouped as A. B group will become eligible for reservations only when candidates from A group are not available. Another important development is the privatization of public sector enterprises and free entry of MNCs due to globalization. For a faster social progress the reservations are to be extended to all private sector enterprises as a rule and as a part of Corporate Social Responsibility programs.</para> <para></para> <para>Other Back Ward Classes</para> <para>OBC communities are basically artisan communities and farmers. Their outstanding skills in domestication of animals/of plants (agriculture), ceramics, metallurgy, tell that they are not only producing communities but also inventors. It is the ancestors of these communities that developed Indus Valley Civilization. Aryanisation of Hindus however reduced these wealth producers to that of Shudras the only purpose of whom is to serve Brahmanas and rulers as per Manu Smriti. The wealth produced by these communities went to the ruling class for free!</para> <para>Though the constitution of India authored by Dr. BR Ambedkar provided for reservations to these communities, successive post- independence Aryanist Governments ignored the implementation. Tamil Nadu provides for 69% caste based reservations for SC, ST and Other Back Classes covering a population of 87% of the state. Aryanists could block implementation of Reservations for OBC communities at the central government till 1990 when the then Prime Minister of India VP Singh set aside 27% of central government jobs for OBC. Extreme Aryanist agitation against OBC reservations at the center however failed.</para> <para>In the recent parliamentary/ assembly elections politicians and all political parties tried to play OBC card for votes! Some promised chief minister ship to OBC some others that and this. The point is that rights are not given but are to be taken if need be by agitation. Till now there are no reservations for OBC in the assembly and parliament seats. Native Indians should agitate for political reservations to OBC communities to get a proportionate representation in the political power lest it will be a failure of democracy.</para> <para></para> <para>Minorities</para> <para>Jain, Bouddha, Sikh, Christian and Islam are considered as minority religions. Aryanists isolate Islam and Christianity as religions from outside of India. They conveniently forget or intentionally mislead the masses about the fact that even pre Vedic Aryans migrated from Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. Aryanists attack Muslims and Christians both physically and ideologically to gain political mileage. Most of the Muslims and Christians are Indian by birth and they must be protected by all means by law. Indians should understand that Aryanists had used violence to suppress Shudras, Tribes with the sanction of Aryanised versions of Indian Epics such as Ramayana (the assassination of Sambhuka), Mahabharata (incapacitating Ekalavya), Manu Smriti and such other Smriti Scriptures. Aryanists wiped out Buddhism and Jain religion from South India using planned violence and committing heinous crimes. So the current violence against Muslims and Christians is just a pretext for Aryanists to keep up their grip on Indian psych. Thus it is the responsibility of Native Indians to stand by the truth and protect the interests of minorities.</para> <para></para> <para>People Below Poverty Line</para> <para>It is reported that almost 22% of Indians live below poverty line. Those with a monthly income below Rs 368 per head (rural) and Rs 560 (urban) per head are categorized as people below poverty line. This income can provide for food grains just to survive and can’t meet the necessities of either health or education. Access to food, health and education are fundamental human rights. Substantial per cent of people from traditionally elite classes are below poverty line. It goes without saying that all Indians are to be provided access to food, health and education even if it is at the cost of the Nation. If not what is the meaning of “Nation First”? It is a shame to all Indians if 22% Indians go hungry. The real development of India is when we achieve zero poverty India with health and education to all. Much of the funds meant for BPL families are syphoned off by the corrupt officials.</para> <para>Poverty has no caste and it can strike any social group. What solutions the present political parties can offer for poor Brahmin, Rajput and Vaisya communities if not a classless society? Or a zero poverty society?</para> <para></para> <para></para> <para>Re- Engineering Education</para> <para></para> <para>Aryanist scripture Manu Smriti dictates that Shudras are not permitted to acquire knowledge and prescribed punishments if any Shudra tries to violate this dictate. Conspicuous example is the assassination of Sambhuka by Rama in Ramayana (Valmiki). Vast majority of Hindus remained illiterate till the British opened education for all. Illiteracy is one of the major problems India is facing even today.</para> <para>Needless to say India needs to achieve cent per cent literacy with a sense of urgency. The present education system introduced by the British is out dated. India being agriculture based country it is imperative that Crop Sciences and Fertilizer/Manure technologies are introduced at the secondary level itself. Similarly introducing other trades (mechanical/electrical/ IT/civil etc) at the secondary level makes the studies interesting and the students will acquire a definite skill. What is the point in learning by rote?</para> <para>The article by Vinod Mathew that appeared in “The New Indian Express” Chennai Edition 8/5/2014, says that around 1.5 Lakh students graduate from 3300 engineering colleges of India every year and most of them are unemployable or not employable. The seats available in Andhra, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra/ Uttar Pradesh are 3.4, 2.3 and 1.4 lakhs respectively. Vinod suggests that some of these colleges with poor facilities and commercial interests be closed.</para> <para>True many of these private engineering colleges were started by those with black money to earn more money! These private colleges provided opportunity to all to fulfill the dream of studying/ becoming engineers. The dropout rate is also high. This has resulted into lack of students for B. Sc degree in science and many seats of M. Sc go unfilled. On the other hand there are less nuclear scientists to day and jobs are vacant! Once upon a time getting a seat in M. Sc in nuclear physics of Andhra University was an uphill task and now it is not. On the one hand we have excess graduate engineers and on the other hand few to pursue fundamental sciences.</para> <para>Thanks to Information Technology (IT) which is absorbing many graduate engineers irrespective of the branch of engineering as IT needs graduates in engineering or science. Also many engineers from high profile Indian Institute of Technologies go for management courses or for Indian Administrative Services there by taking up non engineering professions. How many IIT engineering graduates are successful as shop floor engineers? Engineers from low profile private engineering colleges are doing well both in India and abroad!</para> <para>The point is that nobody can become an Engineer by merely getting a degree in engineering. A graduate engineer becomes an engineer only by practicing the branch in which he graduated! Or otherwise a degree in engineering is as good as a degree in science, nothing more nothing less.</para> <para>One immediate solution is allowing unemployable/ graduate engineers, to take up Post Graduate (PG) courses in Science. In UK PG courses both in engineering and sciences are designed for one year only where as in India they are of two year courses. One year PG courses save the time/money of the students and money for the Institutions/ Government.</para> <para>Instead of closing low profile engineering colleges they must be given a chance to upgrade and offer seats to foreign students. Engineering Education in some foreign countries is un-affordably costly. After all it takes lot of money to establish an engineering college even if with black money!</para> <para>Mineral processing industries absorb graduate engineers to run their plants. Mineral processing is an interdisciplinary course involving chemical/metallurgical engineering and geology. Many mineral processing industries are suffering due to lack of engineers adequately qualified mineral process engineers. We do have institutes that offer Mineral Process Engineering at PG level for example Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad and Andhra University, Waltair. These institutes do admit industry sponsored graduate engineers to the PG courses. Unfortunately industries are not taking advantage of this opportunity. M. Tech course in mineral Processing involves one year course during first year and one year project in the second year. Industry sponsored candidates can take up projects related to their industry which ultimately might solve some of the industry problems. Similarly RR Labs, Bhuvaneshwar is offering one year PG Diploma in Mineral Processing which is more suitable for industry sponsored candidates.</para> <para>We often see HRD people filtering out candidates who did not get first class consistently at various stages. Fortunately marks obtained have nothing to do with probable performance of a graduate/ post graduate engineer at the shop floor. The way out is recruiting fresh engineers as apprentices with minimum stipend and test them. Training fresh engineers must be considered by the industry and the Government as a part of Corporate Social Responsibility. Recruiting in house trained engineers is after all in the interest of the industry.</para> <para>Engineering graduates are applying of the posts of bus conductors! A huge waste of Human Resource due to, ineffective HRD ministry.</para> <para></para> <para></para> <para>Guide Lines for Action</para> <para></para> <para>Aryanism need not be confused with Brahminism. If Chanukya destroyed Nanda dynasty and the Nation Rakshasamatya stood by Nanda dynasty. Brahmins being elite they opted for Buddhism and vegetarianism (probably except in Kashmir/Panjab and Bengal where Brahmins take fish) and it is a different matter that Arya Guru Shankaracharya converted them back and Aryanists had to make Buddha their own God! Even today many of the Brahmins stand for change and unfortunately we see many Shudras in the fold of Aryanists, unwittingly! Aryanists in the current situation can’t re- establish Aryanism but at the best they can bring some Shudras into power with the help of business groups and may create unwanted violence to mislead the Nation and themselves. It is said that frustrated Chanukya immolated himself sitting on the fire. Which Aryanist will perform “Ashwamedha” today? Which Aryanist will agree to beget children by a Rishi, a Niyogi or a God? Sooner or later Aryanists will realize that they are on the wrong track and are doing more harm to the Nation. Aryanism is an untenable ideology, rancid wine.</para> <para>The current situation demands all to lift the unfortunate 22% population of India above the poverty line and eradicate poverty, illiteracy and ill-health. This target can easily be met once black money at home/abroad and benami properties are nationalized.</para> <para>In order to reinforce the self-respect of the Natives there is a great need to restore their temples back to them. For example, the Siva temple at Srisailam to Chenchu tribes, Puri- Jagannauth temple to Savara tribes, Meenakshi (Matangi originally) to Madiga, Vittala (originally Betala to Vetala to Vittala) temple to Mahar/Mala etc. As a thumb rule all dark colored deities are of the Natives and the temples built on the hills and mountains or of the Native Tribes. All Mataji (Mother Godess) temples are of Natives. The revenue generated from these temples should be used for the development of these communities.</para> <para>Those who talk against caste based reservations need to realize that caste based reservations will stay as long as caste exists and hence the need to move fast towards casteless society. At the same time there is an urgent need to put rich SC/ST candidates in “B” group eligible for reservations only if there are no candidates from “A” group the poor and rural. The governance tribal areas must be under the self- rule by Tribal Councils. Let Chittodgad fort be handed over to the Gadaria Lohars.</para> <para>It is time for Native Indians for abandoning villages and migrate to nearby towns to avoid caste conflicts with the feudal castes.</para> <para>Marx observed that Indian society is stagnant and Ambedkar broke the barriers to make the stagnant waters to flow, an irreversible process.</para> <para>First and foremost the Native Communities should stop  selling their votes,  start their own regional parties maintaining unity among themselves,  contest from general seats  at national level they may form Secular Socialist Federation with other parties of Native Indians, Dravidian and Secular parties or even truly Nationalists. Native Indians must be with minorities and their political setups both at regional and National levels. Native Indian communities must avoid the neo bourgeois among them from taking political power for they are rank corrupt. It is time for Indian leftists to come out of somber, take note of the ongoing social revolution and join the Natives.</para> <para>On the other hand it is the responsibility of the Native Hindus to take care of all Indians including the Aryanists walking long path that is “Jan Path” or “Jana Patham” to achieve Bhillu Nadu the casteless, classless, compassionate India. Native Indians in the different parts of India have their own local problems which they need to attend as short term targets and Jana Patham is a long way to Bhillu Nadu that is casteless, classless and compassionate India. There can be multiple paths to the final goal of casteless, classless, compassionate India. The ways treaded by Yogi Vemana, Tripuraneni Ramaswamy, Gurram Jashua, Gora Couple in Andhra region are towards that goal. Brahmam Garu a popular spiritual leader belonging to the Native community in Andhra region discouraged casteism.</para> <para>“Educate!, Organize!, Agitate!” roared* Baba Saheb. Then let us go to the rural India where two thirds population lives. Educate the Natives of their Nativity and their genetic origin since 60000 years! Organize them so that they don’t sell their votes. Selling vote is selling the soul. A prostitute sells her body probably to escape hunger but not her soul. Selling vote is a heinous crime against the Nation and so is buying the vote. Democracy is a boon to humanity by humanity. Selling/buying vote is mockery of democracy. Against whom you will agitate if you sell your vote to your exploiters? Marx would have told “Ye Natives of India, agitate, ye have nothing to lose except mental slavery”. India is possessed by the evil specter of Caste created by Aryanists. Kick out that spirit from within that is kenosis.</para> <para>”OURS IS A BATTLE FOR FREEDOM, OURS IS A BATTLE NOT JUST FOR ECONOMICAL GAINS AND POLITICAL POWER, OURS IS A BATTLE FOR RECLAMATION OF HUMAN PERSONALITY WHICH HAS BEEN SUPPRESSED AND MUTILATED BY THE HINDU SOCIAL ORDER AND CONTINUE TO BE SUPPRESSED AND MUTILATED”—DR.BR.AMBEDKAR</para> <para>”Noble is your aim and sublime and glorious is your mission. Blessed are those who are awakened to their duty to those among whom they are born. Glory to those who devote their time, talents and their all to the amelioration of slavery. Glory to those who would reap their struggle for the liberation of the enslaved in spite of heavy odds, car pine humiliation, storms and dangers till the downtrodden secure their Human Rights.” – Dr.B.R.Ambedkar.</para> <para>Ye Native Indians tighten the belts, “ye shall win unless ye quit”.</para> <para>* The actual order is said to be “Educate! Agitate! Organize!”</para> <para><bold>Part-2</bold></para> <para>Democracy and Socialism</para> <para></para> <para>The collapse of the USSR and the socialist regimes in Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991gave an impression that socialism may be an unviable ideology or just an utopia. But we see progressive forces coming to power in Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil and Nicaragua not necessarily through armed revolution but through democratic means. And that tiny Cuba stands strong. Martha Harnecker studying the left movement in Latin America, states the required changes in the approach  A left party need not necessarily imitate the Bolshevik model of the erstwhile USSR rather the party should develop a form of organization to meet the particular historically determined conditions within the country  A person can be both a believer and a revolutionary at the same time and there is no need to put materialism before religion. Respect the religious beliefs of other members  Democracy is the essence of socialism and proletariat dictatorship may be side lined  Focus should be on concrete circumstances rather than the theory  Shift the leadership style from military mode to educative mode  Honesty and transparency is important for both cadres and the leaders  Revolution is about making the impossible to happen and is not about talking or acting radical  Building a political force should be preceded by building of the social force  Prepare people for cooperative economics and self- management  Link wages to increasing production/revenue. Indeed the Latin American experience shows that peaceful transition to socialism through democratic processes without violence is possible.</para> <para></para> <para>Determinism Vs Uncertainty</para> <para></para> <para>Stephen Hawking explaining the “The Uncertainty Principle”, says that the success of the scientific theories particularly Newton’s theory of gravity, led the French scientist the Marquis de Laplace [at the beginning of the nineteenth century] to argue that the universe was completely deterministic. This meant that a set of scientific laws would allow us to predict everything that would happen in the universe. Indeed all scientific laws are not like the theory of gravity. The formulation of uncertainty principle by Werner Heisenberg a German scientist puts a hold on determinism. Hawking explains “That is to say, if one made the same measurement on a large number of similar systems, each of which started off in the same way, one would find the result of the measurement would be A in certain number of cases, B in a different number, and so on. One could predict the approximate number of times that the result would be A or B, but one could not predict the specific result of an individual measurement. Quantum mechanics therefore introduces an unavoidable element of unpredictability or randomness into science”. The first principle in statistical process control is: variations are natural. The two types of causes of variations are  random and  assignable. Random causes are many and show feeble effect on the quality of the product whereas assignable causes are few and show marked effect on the product quality. Random variations are natural variations and obey normal distribution which is also known as Gaussian distribution. Considering development / evolution of human societies as a continuation of the evolutionary process [the basis of which is the mechanism of natural selection] it may be argued that development[s] of human societies may not be predetermined but have directionality. The direction is towards altruism. In fact selfishness and altruism are two faces of the same coin i.e. survival. Politics, economics and socio- cultural aspects of a particular society are the three variable dimensions of the same society that influence each other and also the survival / evolution of the society. In the context of the evolution of a society the constant is the survival of the society. We know that Russia, China and Cuba have started as socialist countries and now they are in no way similar. This indeed suggests that the uncertainty principle may also be applied to social dynamics. If there is a sudden change in the quality of a society, there must be assignable causes. In other words assignable causes may lead to a qualitative change in the society. If the evolution of the human societies is governed only by physical laws then the entropy [disorder/ disintegration] of the societies must increase as per the second law of thermodynamics. But in reality human societies are self- developing. Self -development is due to the drive of the genopsych the self -programming property of all biological systems including human societies.</para> <para></para> <para>Cooperative Economics</para> <para></para> <para>During nineteen forties Polson diary in Anand [Gujarat] used to collect milk from the farmers and supply the same to Bombay city located 400 kilometers away. Marginal farmers had to physically carry the milk containers to sell to the traders who in turn sold to the dairy. The farmers had to sell the milk at the rates determined by the traders as the farmers can’t store it. Milk is a perishable product. A freedom fighter and a social worker Sri Tribhuvan Das Patel gathered the milk producers and formed a cooperative. Amul the brand name of the products of the cooperative was registered in 1946 and Kaira District Milk Producers Union Ltd was formally registered during 1948 which had pasteurizing facility. This model was replicated in other districts also. Dr. Varghese Kurian joined the efforts of Tribhuvan Das Patel leaving his government job. Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation a state level body was formally registered during 1973. Today Amul belongs to 2.6 million milk producers of the state of Gujarat that was doing a business of 1050 million dollars turn over during 2006-07. Dr. Kurian played the key role in developing the cooperative movement of Amul. Dr. Kurian ensured four things in the management  no to corruption,  no interference from politicians or the governments both state and the center  adoption of the new technologies and  high quality of the Amul products. When Dr. Kurian was invited to head the National Dairy Development Board by the Government of India [by Mrs. Gandhi the then Prime Minister] the first condition of Dr. Kurian was that NDDB will not answer the ministry of agriculture which was accepted. The success story of Amul shows that a cooperative of the ordinary farmers can compete with multinational companies of the capitalists. Dr. Kurian apparently has not entertained any ideology. His only ideology was transparent management of the cooperative. He established Institute of Rural Management, Anand which also offers MBA courses. Amul model is being replicated in several other states.</para> <para></para> <para>Wealth and Nature</para> <para></para> <para>We have today wealthy nations and poor nations. What made some nations wealthy? There are two factors  ability to develop advanced science and technology and  ability to use these technologies to exploit natural resources. In many occasions exploitation of natural resources also means destruction of the nature. Much is being discussed about global warming, damage to the environment and ecology. Is it worth making the Earth uninhabitable to our future generations? Who are the owners of the natural resources? We, the present generation only? Or are our future generations also are the owners of the natural resources which we are depleting? Who will decide how much of the natural resources can be used by us. These are really disturbing questions. An honest answer is that there are no owners of natural resources and in fact we the humans are a part of the nature. Thus Marx may be correct in his argument for the abolishment of the private property. We do not own this Earth. Is it necessary for the existence of humans to run industries that produce Coca Cola and Pepsi which do not have any nutrient value? Is it necessary to have junk and fast foods that may create a nation of obese people? Is it necessary to have air conditioners? The world is energy hungry they say. Have not our ancestors lived without much consumption of energy? The more energy the world produces the more entropic [disordered] the world becomes leading to increasingly inhospitable environment. In other words the more wealth we produce using non- renewable resources the more inhospitable the environment will become. There is a need to self -control the use of natural resources in our own interest and in the interest of our descendants.</para> <para></para> <para>Technologies for the Future</para> <para></para> <para>Life is sustained by many natural cyclic processes. Instead of exploiting and destroying the nature man should learn to live along with the nature. This is possible if the future technologies are based on renewable resources and restrict the use of non -renewable resources to bare minimum. Today the world consumes around 150 million tons of high grade rock phosphate mineral to produce di ammonium phosphate [DAP] a chemical phosphatic fertilizer. However 70% of the phosphorous applied to the soils as fertilizer is fixed by the soil into forms unavailable to the crops and some of the phosphorous in the water soluble form is carried away by water. Thus only 30% of the applied phosphorous is actually used by the crops. Further excessive application of chemical fertilizers destroys the natural micro flora and fauna of the soils because of which soils lose natural properties. Continued excessive application of chemical fertilizers in fact reduces the crop yield. Recently it is found that rock phosphate mineral mixed with organic manure [Phosphate Rich Organic Manure or PROM] shows double the efficiency of DAP. Further even the low grade phosphate minerals can be used in this technique provided the mineral is in fine size. A herd of 4000 cows will produce around 35000 liters of milk per day and also will produce dung that can be used in a bio gas plant to operate a 0.5 mega Watt power plant. Simple mixing of rock phosphate mineral to the discharge of the bio gas plant makes PROM a phosphatic manure that is more effective than DAP. This is just an example that shows us the right direction. Commercial production of hydrogen from biological sources for use as fuel is an area that needs focused investigation. It is a matter of interest to improve the energy efficiency of the processes and products. Energy efficient High Pressure Grinding Rolls which are popular in cement industry are also making inroads into mineral industry. Dr. Rath believes that micronutrient deficiency is the cause of many chronic diseases such as many forms of cancer, irregular heart -beat, heart failure, immune deficiencies. His research proves that these deficiencies can be made good by natural methods. He further says,” The pharmaceutical industry tries to protect its global drug market by outlawing natural remedies. Effective, non-patentable and affordable natural health approaches threaten the very existence of the pharmaceutical industry. The multi-trillion dollar global pharmaceutical market is dependent on synthetic drugs that allow an excessively high return on investment based on the patentability of those drugs. To secure the continued existence of the pharmaceutical industry as the most profitable industry on the earth, the large corporations embarked on a global battle to outlaw the dissemination of natural health information”. He further argues that the essential micronutrients that can combat the diseases can be produced anywhere in the world in any quantity at low costs. Ayurvedic medicines of India are cheap and are very effective in some cases. Extensive research efforts are required to re validate ancient medicinal systems. As knowledge development is a continuous and evolutionary process, nobody can claim the ownership of knowledge and hence patenting of knowledge needs to be banned.</para> <para></para> <para>Extinction</para> <para>We know that several species that once thrived on the surface of the Earth are now extinct. From the stand point of Darwinian Theory of evolution it is survival of the fittest and the fittest is selected by the environment from among the variant types produced by the species. We know that more industrialization means more destruction of the environment. Interestingly the environment itself is seldom constant. Thus the species and the environment [nature] are co evolving. A destroyed or polluted environment may not be fit for the human beings and hence they may not be selected by the environment. Also we learn from the past that several great civilizations evolved and subsequently collapsed for a variety of reasons. However the current industrialized civilization is quite different because of the modern science. A nuclear war can wipe out the entire humanity. The occasional news of the spread of bird or swine flue across the nations is a warning that the destruction of human beings due to spread of virus can’t be ruled out.</para> <para>Compensatory Technologies</para> <para></para> <para>All modern industrial activities cause damage to the environment. And the so called development of human societies is also due to these industrial activities. There can be no unequivocal answer to the question as to which is more important for us between preservation of environment and the development of the human societies. The middle path may be acceptable to us which means, the controlled exploitation of the nature followed by compensation of the damage. One such example may be seen from the mining activity. Low grade ores are mined and processed to concentrate the minerals. The processing of ores generates huge quantities of wastes known as tailings. Tailings still contain unrecovered minerals though in very small quantities. The tailings are disposed off into the environment as impoundments or as tailing dams. These tailings dams are sources of pollution and may contain toxic elements that escape from the impoundment into the environment. A case in review is the abandoned old tailings dam of lead-zinc mineral processing plant at Zawar Mines which contained residual lead, zinc and iron minerals in their sulfide forms. This tailings dam was a source of dust pollution in the summers and of dissolved heavy metals [lead, zinc, iron] that were escaping into the environment along with the run off rain water during rainy seasons. During eighties pollution control norms were not stringent in India. But there are known chemical, physical and biological methods to deal with the problems of the tailings dams which were being tried in other countries during eighties. Chemical methods involve spraying of polymers over the surface of the dam while physical methods involve laying solid flooring using grit or grit and cement over the surface of the tailings dam. Biological methods involve growing vegetative cover over the surface of the tailings dam. But in the case of old tailings dam of Zawar it is indeed difficult to grow vegetation due to the presence of heavy metals in amounts that are toxic to the plants. Ameliorating the surface of the old tailings dam with farm yard manure and planting species that are hard and heavy metal tolerant allowed the growth of plants which acted as pioneers. Continued efforts allowed the growth secondary vegetation and today there is forest like lush green vegetation on the old tailings dam of Zawar mines. The area of the study of growing vegetation on disturbed lands is today known as phyto remediation. Phyto remediation is a compensatory technology that takes care of the negative effects of commercial technologies. Industries should think of green compensatory technologies to overcome the industrial pollution much ahead say at the project planning stage itself. Utilization of Industrial wastes should be a part of the Environment Management Plan. Our planet has capacity to heal herself from the hurt caused by unnatural human activities but that capacity is not unlimited and the process of healing is too slow. Hence when a technology is being commercialized it must be coupled with compensatory technologies that can take care of the damage to the environment by the technology being commercialized.</para> <para></para> <para>Zero Poverty Society</para> <para></para> <para>If the socio-economic process a society under goes is natural, then the wealth of individuals in the society will follow natural distribution having the poor and the rich at the opposite tail ends of the bell shaped normal distribution curve. Some industries achieved zero defect production by consciously driving the production process. It must also be possible to increase the mean wealth of a society by eliminating all “assignable causes” that lead to poverty. It must be possible to achieve a zero poverty society [ZPS] by consciously driving the socio economic processes through human effort and intervention. ZPS is a state where healthy food and access to higher education are basic human rights. Achieving ZPS is the first step towards the evolution of the altruistic society. Capitalist economy is an open ended chain of commercial activities where at one end of the chain profits [wealth] are polarized and poverty at the other end. Poverty can be eliminated by recycling some of the accumulated profits back to the system. The profits come from the natural resource being exploited, the employees [including those who developed the technology], vendors and contractors who participate in the commercial activities and finally the customers and the end users. Recycling the profits to the sources makes the economy a living network economy. Modern capitalism indeed learned recycling some of the profits in terms of production incentive to the work force or through schemes like employee stock option plan. Large industries are spending money on community development (corporate social responsibility) to ensure the growth of the people living around the industries. Organizations interested in achieving ZPS should  educate the people and improve the literacy to cent per cent  build the capacity of the individual members of the society  develop a sense of cooperative living in all respects  empower women and  educate people on the need to control population. Spread of poverty can be a potential cause of the self- destruction of human society. Human beings have sufficient free will and hence can eliminate many of the causes that may lead to the extinction of humanity provided they overcome their selfishness and ego at the level of the individual and unnecessary competition at the level of groups/ Nations. Lord Buddha is quoted to have said, “All selfishness and corruption, all violence, all exploitation come from that limited attitude of the ‘self’. That attitude is harmless for a baby but not for a grown-up person. We have to respect other people, respond to other people, work for them and help them. There is so much need for intercommunication in society.”</para> <para>Socio-Political Consciousness</para> <para></para> <para>The genomic structure [of higher organism] having more AT pairs than GC pairs compels us to think that there is latent consciousness in the genome and genopsych the self -programming property of genome is the driving force behind the evolution of species. Similarly the evolution of human societies is driven by conscious self -developing nature [genopsychic] of the society. Mass consciousness can be engineered based on the fact that all of us tend to be more altruistic by nature though we are selfish to some extent or the other. Selfishness can be self -controlled consciously. People should be educated about the real dangers of the very possibility of the extinction of entire humanity if we fail to self -control. Democracy permits engineering of socio political consciousness towards altruistic societies. Socio – political consciousness is about the individuals of a society being aware of the socio political conditions that are governing the society of which the individual is a part. Lack of socio political consciousness weakens the self- developing forces [genopsychic] of the society which stagnates or leads towards disintegration [increase of entropy] of the society. See for example, Indian society just before the British rule.</para> <para>Part 3</para> <para>Terminology:</para> <para> Native Indians/ Hindus: The people such as mala, madiga, chenchu, bhils, etc (tribes such as santals, mundas and the ancestors of present day OBC and Shudra communities) who were living in India before the arrival of Aryans. Native Indians are the people who built Indus Valley Civilization since 7000 – 8000 BCE starting with agriculture. Native Indians were/are speakers of Dravidian languages and dark skinned.</para> <para> Aryans/Pre Vedic Aryans: People who migrated from Middle East, Central Asia and Europe (MECAE).</para> <para> Vedic Aryans: Descendants of MECAE people and Native Indians/Hindus due to genetic mixing up that started around 2200- 2000 BCE and ended around 500 CE. Vedic Aryans called themselves “Arya” in Sanskrit an Indo European language. Arya is cognate with Aryan.</para> <para> Brahminism to be replaced by Aryanism. People who propagate Aryan beliefs such as casteism based on Manu Smriti are aryanists. Aryanism is an ideology supported by even some Shudras. Many Brahmins opposed casteism/Manu Scriptures. The terms Aryanism or Aryanist does not represent any particular caste.</para> <para> Hindu: The word Sindu was spelled as Hindu by Persians to distinguish people the Native Hindus (with their own cultural identity) living South and East of Sindhu River from those living Western side. Thus Hindu strictly has geographical meaning and does not represent any specific religion. The descendants of people that migrated from Middle East, Central Asia and Europe (MECAE) called themselves as Arya and the Major Genetic mix up of the migrants with the Natives is estimated to have happened around 2200- 2000 BCE a period that coincides with the collapse of Indus Valley Civilization. Linguists estimate the arrival of Indo European languages into India around the same period that is around 2200 – 2000 BCE. The descendant Aryans developed /formalized verses of Vedas around 1700 – 1500 BCE in Sanskrit a refined Indo European language containing Dravidian words.</para> <para>We do not find the word Hindu in Vedas called “Srhuti” (listened directly) literature or in Smriti (written out of memory, developed around 500 CE) literature along with revised versions of Bharatam / Ramayana (as we know them today). Thus smriti/shruti literature represents Aryanism or Aryanist religion.</para> <para>The words Hindu/ Hinduism are hijacked by Ayanists to Aryanize Native Hindus. In other words Aryanists are marketing Aryanism as Hinduism. Hindu means India and not any religion.</para> <para> Feudal Castes: Large Agricultural Land owning castes in the rural India or ultra –rich shudras.</para> <para> Pseudo Communists: The so called communists serving the interests of Feudal castes and Aryanists.</para> <para> The Problem of Native Hindus is twofold, that they have to face (a) Aryanists at the social front (caste/religious conflict) and (b) Feudal Castes which is both caste and class conflict. Added to this is the problem of petty bourgeois (Neo- Rich due to corrupt practices) Native Indians who are taking up the political representation of Natives with the help of Feudal Castes. These neo rich Native Indians growing at the feet of feudal castes are rank corrupt and are the big hurdles to the progress of rural native Indians. Similarly Aryanist Shudras are hurdles to the overall progress of social revolution in India. Ambedkarism is the only solution for the progress of social revolution. However the class problem may need additional inputs from Marxism/ Latin American Experience of Left Movement.</para> <para></para></sec>
The content of this article is developed by several authors and you are welcome to suggest improvements by posting comment. We can build a vibrant India/Bhil Nadu based on scientific knowledge and not basing on superstitions/mythologies/lies.