DNA molecules have remarkable properties1, 2 of self assembling/repairing and replication. Self repairing and replication are two faces of the same coin meant for the survival of DNA molecules. These properties at the level of a living organism are expressed as primary instincts3, self preservation and procreation and as behavioral traits selfishness and altruism. Selfishness is for the survival of the individual and altruism is for the survival of the group which are two faces of the same coin meant for survival of the species. Living species have a natural tendency to form groups for example, colonies of bacteria, flocks of birds, herds of cattle and human societies which are self organizing. The behavioral traits selfishness and altruism of individuals are competition and cooperation at the level of societies. No individual can be cent percent selfish or cent per cent altruistic as such a case will lead to self extinction rather than survival. However the tilt appears to be towards altruism as indicated by the natural formation of groups by individuals. While altruism is the directionality of evolution of human societies the drive is due to genopsych the self programming property of DNA/genome, which is expressed as self development of the society at that level. The abundant “free will” of the human beings empowers them to intervene into natural processes of the evolution of the society either to enhance the process or to reverse the directionality by increasing the selfishness. Increased selfishness perturbs the directionality of evolution. Uncontrolled energy hunger of the humans and unbridled exploitation of non renewable natural resources do perturb not only the natural processes of the evolution of human societies but also the environment and ecology. A democratic society allows engineering the socio political consciousness required to over come the effects of the perturbation of the natural processes by human beings.
Evolution of human societies and Marx
Human societies are initially groups of hunters and gatherers. Their struggle was for food for survival. What so ever food was gathered [by hunting the animals or by gathering fruits and tubers from the forest] is distributed among members of the group. There were no classes and probably these societies are matriarchal as marriages are not known at that point of time. Invention of agriculture [domestication of animals and plants probably during 10000 – 8000 BCE] is a step forward in the evolution of human society. Ability to store food [the products of agriculture] has given opportunities to humans to explore nature. This has resulted into the development of ceramics [pottery at Mehrgarh, a Harappan site during 5500-3300 for example] and also establishment of villages converting some of the nomadic groups into settled tribes. Tribes were worshiping natural objects like trees, stones, rivers, mountains and their deities were females who might be their ancestors. Invention and development of metallurgy [copper/bronze from 3300 BCE to 1900 BCE, during Harappan culture] accompanied by the related trade activities have resulted into establishment of towns, cities and kingdoms leading to the evolution of tribal societies into feudal societies. The advances in modern science and the availability of excess rural man power that migrated to urban areas led to the industrialization of Great Britain during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Industrialization had spread to other countries also. Industrialization has produced two new classes of people, the capitalists [the owners] and the workers [proletariat] of the industries. Marx predicted [The communist Manifesto, 1849] that the capitalist societies will evolve into socialist societies through the class struggle [armed revolution] of proletariat and socialist societies will further evolve into communist society which is a classless and stateless society. Each individual of the communist society will work as per his ability and each individual will get as per his need. All the decisions in a communist society will be taken democratically. The communist society will be however preceded by proletariat dictatorship during transitional period. Though there are forerunners of the idea of socialism [French socialists for example] Marx has supported his theory by his work on Das Capital, dialectical materialism and historical materialism after extensive study of political economy of capitalism, philosophy and materialism.
Rise and collapse of the USSR
The communists known as Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyanovich Lenin came to power during 1917 in Russia through armed struggle defeating Tzarist regime. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was founded during 1922. Being one among the winners of the Second World War, USSR became a global super power competing with USA and the other capitalist countries of the West on all fronts. USSR was solidly behind developing countries like India. Communists of Vietnam backed by USSR won the war [1959-1975] against America another super power. USSR sent Uri Gagarin into the space a first of its kind. It was a dream world that eradicated poverty, education and health care was free. Unfortunately in the name of cold war both the super powers USSR and USA committed atrocities in other countries. The so called proletariat dictatorship continued in the USSR and the leadership became authoritarian suffocating people with lack of freedom and democracy even after 74 years of rule. An authoritarian regime means a regime with out responsibility and accountability. The proletariat dictatorship proved to be no different from military dictatorship. As a result the efficiency of the system slowly came down and probably started degenerating mainly due to lack of accountability, corrupt leadership and lack of voice to the people. Instead of correcting the situation, the last soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced market economy probably under the influence of capitalist countries which led to the collapse of the mighty USSR. Today we hear that poverty, unemployment are back into the Russian society.
Crime behind Capital
Marx is said to have told his daughter that there is crime behind every capital. Some libertarians say that capitalism has nothing to do with wars. Is it true? The capitalistic America along with UK invaded  Iraq, killed Saddam the Iraqi leader under the pretext that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. Till date no such weapon is found there. The war caused misery not only to Iraqis but also to the soldiers of USA and their families. The real interest of USA and UK is the control over Iraqi oil. Noam Chomsky lists out American interference4 in other countries for example,  its support to military coup  in Indonesia led by General Suharto who carried out a huge massacre of about a million landless peasants and subsequent wiping out of a mass based political party there,  its role in assisting the formation of Al Qaeda followed by arming and training this organization,  its role in training the terrorists of Central America  to facilitate the killing of an archbishop and six other Jesuit intellectuals. Are all capitalists criminal? May not be! But capitalism is the economic face of selfishness. Uncontrolled capitalism can be fatal to the society. The failure of a few selfish companies, Lehman Brothers, AIG, City group, Chrysler, GM indeed failed the American economy as we are seeing it today. These companies failed because of the very few selfish people who were heading these companies. The economy of a mighty country was in the hands of just few greedy people! And American Government saves some of these companies by providing guarantees, loans etc. This probably and seriously warrants imposing of limits on the size of the business companies. A highly reputed private auditing company failed [or colluded] to find the fraud of Satyam Computers [an Indian company]. Government Auditors [at least in India] are more efficient.
It is relevant to look at the workers and their [trade union] leaders [in India] in the organized sectors [both private and public] to test if they can lead a nation. We take the example of India. In all large scale major industries we have powerful trade unions and they ensure implementation of all labor laws. The salaries are reasonably good. The trade union leaders take liberty not to work. In the large scale public sector undertakings the efficiency of the work force is too low. This is overcome by the managements either by providing production incentives [other than salary] or by employing contract labor or by implementing both these methods. The trade union leaders indulge in pressurizing the managements which are infected by corruption to some degree or the other. The trade union leaders also indulge in corrupt activities. Indeed proletariat are no angels but just are human with all the selfishness and greed…
Democracy and Socialism
The collapse of the USSR and the socialist regimes in Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991gave an impression that socialism may be an unviable ideology or just an utopia. But we see progressive forces coming to power in Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil and Nicaragua not necessarily through armed revolution but through democratic means. And that tiny Cuba stands strong. Martha Harnecker studying5 the left movement in Latin America, states the required changes in the approach  A left party need not necessarily imitate the Bolshevik model of the erstwhile USSR rather the party should develop a form of organization to meet the particular historically determined conditions within the country  A person can be both a believer and a revolutionary at the same time and there is no need to put materialism before religion. Respect the religious beliefs of other members  Democracy is the essence of socialism and proletariat dictatorship may be side lined  Focus should be on concrete circumstances rather than the theory  Shift the leadership style from military mode to educative mode  Honesty and transparency is important for both cadres and the leaders  Revolution is about making the impossible to happen and is not about talking or acting radical  Building a political force should be preceded by building of the social force  Prepare people for cooperative economics and self- management  Link wages to increasing production/revenue. Indeed the Latin American experience shows that peaceful transition to socialism through democratic processes without violence is possible.
Determinism Vs Uncertainty
Stephen Hawking explaining the “The Uncertainty Principle”, says6 that the success of the scientific theories particularly Newton’s theory of gravity, led the French scientist the Marquis de Laplace [at the beginning of the nineteenth century] to argue that the universe was completely deterministic. This meant that a set of scientific laws would allow us to predict every thing that would happen in the universe. Indeed all scientific laws are not like the theory of gravity. The formulation of uncertainty principle by Werner Heisenberg a German scientist puts a hold on determinism. Hawking explains “That is to say, if one made the same measurement on a large number of similar systems, each of which started off in the same way, one would find the result of the measurement would be A in certain number of cases, B in a different number, and so on. One could predict the approximate number of times that the result would be A or B, but one could not predict the specific result of an individual measurement. Quantum mechanics therefore introduces an unavoidable element of unpredictability or randomness into science”. The first principle in statistical process control7 is: variations are natural. The causes of variations are  random and  assignable. Random causes are many and show feeble effect on the quality of the product where as assignable causes are few and show marked effect on the product quality. Random variations are natural variations and obey normal distribution which is also known as Gaussian distribution. Considering development / evolution of human societies as a continuation of the evolutionary process [the basis of which is the mechanism of natural selection] it may be argued that development[s] of human societies may not be predetermined but have directionality. The direction is towards altruism. In fact selfishness and altruism are two faces of the same coin i.e. survival. Politics, economics and socio- cultural aspects of a particular society are the three dimensions of the same society that influence each other and also the survival / evolution of the society. The gas equation may be considered as an analogy [caution: human societies can’t be fitted into equations, this is only an example for easier understanding] a simpler version of which is: PV= RT, where P= pressure, V= volume, T= temperature, R= gas constant. P, V, T are variables. In the context of the evolution of a society the constant is the survival of the society and the variables are social, political and economic systems of the society. We know that Russia, China and Cuba have started as socialist countries and now they are in no way similar. This indeed suggests that the uncertainty principle may also be applied to social dynamics. If there is a sudden change in the quality of a society, there must be assignable causes. In other words assignable causes may lead to a qualitative change in the society. If the evolution of the human societies is governed only by physical laws then the entropy [disorder/ disintegration] of the societies must increase as per8 the second law of thermodynamics. But in reality human societies9 are self developing. Self development is due to the drive of the genopsych10, the self programming property of all biological systems including human societies.
During nineteen forties Polson diary in Anand [Gujarat] used to collect milk from the farmers and supply the same to Bombay city located 400 kilometers away. Marginal farmers had to physically carry the milk containers to sell to the traders who in turn sold to the dairy. The farmers had to sell the milk at the rates determined by the traders as the farmers can’t store it. Milk is a perishable product. A freedom fighter and a social worker Sri Tribhuvan Das Patel gathered the milk producers and formed a cooperative. Amul the brand name of the products of the cooperative was registered in 1946 and Kaira District Milk Producers Union Ltd was formally registered during 1948 which had pasteurizing facility. This model was replicated in other districts also. Dr. Varghese Kurian joined the efforts of Tribhuvan Das Patel leaving his government job. Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation a state level body was formally registered during 1973. Today Amul belongs to 2.6 million milk producers of the state of Gujarat that was doing a business of 1050 million dollars turn over during 2006-07. Dr. Kurian played the key role in developing the cooperative movement11 of Amul. Dr. Kurian ensured four things in the management  no to corruption,  no interference from politicians or the governments both state and the center  adoption of the new technologies and  high quality of the Amul products. When Dr. Kurian was invited to head the National Dairy Development Board by the Government of India [by Mrs. Gandhi the then Prime Minister] the first condition of Dr. Kurian was that NDDB will not answer the ministry of agriculture which was accepted. The success story of Amul shows that a cooperative of the ordinary farmers can compete with multinational companies of the capitalists. Dr. Kurian apparently has not entertained any ideology. His only ideology was transparent management of the cooperative. He established Institute of Rural Management, Anand which also offers MBA courses. Amul model is being replicated in several other states.
Wealth and Nature
We have today wealthy nations and poor nations. What made some nations wealthy? There are two factors  ability to develop advanced science and technology and  ability to use these technologies to exploit natural resources. In many occasions exploitation of natural resources also means destruction of the nature. Much is being discussed about global warming, damage to the environment and ecology. Is it worth making the Earth uninhabitable to our future generations? Who are the owners of the natural resources? We, the present generation only? Or are our future generations also are the owners of the natural resources which we are depleting? Who will decide how much of the natural resources can be used by us. These are really disturbing questions. An honest answer is that there are no owners of natural resources and in fact we the humans are a part of the nature. Thus Marx may be correct in his argument for the abolishment of the private property at least theoretically. We do not own this Earth. Is it necessary for the existence of humans to run industries that produce Coca Cola and Pepsi which do not have any nutrient value? Is it necessary to have junk and fast foods that may create a nation of obese people? Is it necessary to have air conditioners? The world is energy hungry they say. Have not our ancestors lived without much consumption of energy? The more energy the world produces the more entropic [disordered] the world becomes leading to increasingly inhospitable environment. In other words the more wealth we produce using non renewable resources the more inhospitable the environment will become. There is a need to self control the use of natural resources in our own interest and in the interest of our descendants.
Technologies for the Future
Life is sustained by many natural cyclic processes. Instead of exploiting and destroying the nature man should learn to live along with the nature. This is possible if the future technologies are based on renewable resources and restrict the use of non renewable resources to bare minimum. Today the world consumes around 150 million tons of high grade rock phosphate mineral to produce di ammonium phosphate [DAP] a chemical phosphatic fertilizer. However 70% of the phosphorous applied to the soils as fertilizer is fixed by the soil into forms unavailable to the crops and some of the phosphorous in the water soluble form is carried away by water. Thus only 30% of the applied phosphorous is actually used by the crops. Further excessive application of chemical fertilizers destroys the natural micro flora and fauna of the soils because of which soils lose natural properties. Continued excessive application of chemical fertilizers in fact reduces the crop yield. Recently it is found that rock phosphate mineral mixed with organic manure [Phosphate Rich Organic Manure or PROM] shows12,13 double the efficiency of DAP. Further even the low grade phosphate minerals can be used in this technique provided the mineral is in fine size. A herd of 4000 cows will produce around 35000 liters of milk per day and also will produce dung that can be used in a bio gas plant to operate a 0.5 mega Watt power plant. Simple mixing of rock phosphate mineral to the discharge of the bio gas plant makes PROM a phosphatic manure that is more effective than DAP. This is just an example that shows us the right direction. Commercial production of hydrogen from biological sources for use as fuel is an area that needs focused investigation. It is a matter of interest to improve the energy efficiency of the processes and products. CFL is an example. Energy efficient Higher Pressure Grinding Rolls are now popular in cement industry. Dr. Rath believes14 that micronutrient deficiency is the cause of many chronic diseases such as many forms of cancer, irregular heart beat, heart failure, immune deficiencies. His research proves that these deficiencies can be made good by natural methods. He further says,” The pharmaceutical industry tries to protect its global drug market by outlawing natural remedies. Effective, non-patentable and affordable natural health approaches threaten the very existence of the pharmaceutical industry. The multi-trillion dollar global pharmaceutical market is dependant on synthetic drugs that allow an excessively high return on investment based on the patentability of those drugs. To secure the continued existence of the pharmaceutical industry as the most profitable industry on the earth, the large corporations embarked on a global battle to outlaw the dissemination of natural health information”. He further argues that the essential micronutrients that can combat the diseases can be produced any where in the world in any quantity at low costs. Ayurvedic medicines of India are cheap and are very effective in some cases. Extensive research efforts are required to re validate ancient medicinal systems. As knowledge development is a continuous and evolutionary process, no body can claim the ownership of knowledge and hence patenting of knowledge needs to be banned.
Reforms and Revolution
If we look at figure one we notice that each mode that represents the cranial volume of a species is approximately a normal distribution. There are variations in the cranial volume of a species which are random and will show only a feeble effect on the cranium leading to stabilizing selection. However for evolution of a species to happen some of the variations should be directional and accumulation of directional variations that may form a programme will ultimately cause the evolution. In the context of social evolution directional variations are reforms where as the evolution is the revolution. Thus a revolution must be preceded by certain reforms inadvertently or otherwise. Orthodox Marxists completely ignore the importance of reforms.
We know that several species that once thrived on the surface of the Earth are now extinct. From the stand point of Darwinian Theory of evolution it is survival of the fittest and the fittest is selected by the environment from among the variant types produced by the species. We know that more industrialization means more destruction of the environment. Interestingly the environment it self is seldom constant. Thus the species and the environment [nature] are co evolving. A destroyed or polluted environment may not be fit for the human beings and hence they may not be selected by the environment. Also we learn from the past that several great civilizations evolved and subsequently collapsed for a variety of reasons. However the current industrialized civilization is quite different because of the modern science. A nuclear war can wipe out the entire humanity. The occasional news of the spread of bird or swine flue across the nations is a warning that the destruction of human beings due to spread of virus can’t be ruled out.
All modern industrial activities cause damage to the environment. And the so called development of human societies is also due to these industrial activities. There can be no unequivocal answer to the question as to which is more important for us between preservation of environment and the development of the human societies. The middle path may be acceptable to us which means, the controlled exploitation of the nature followed by compensation of the damage. One such example may be seen from the mining activity. Low grade ores are mined and processed to concentrate the minerals. The processing of ores generates huge quantities of wastes known as tailings. Tailings still contain unrecovered minerals though in very small quantities. The tailings are disposed off into the environment as impoundments or as tailing dams. These tailings dams are sources of pollution and may contain toxic elements that escape from the impoundment into the environment. A case in review is the abandoned old tailings dam of lead-zinc mineral processing plant at Zawar Mines which contained residual lead, zinc and iron minerals in their sulfide forms. This tailings dam was a source of dust pollution in the summers and of dissolved heavy metals [lead, zinc, iron] that were escaping into the environment along with the run off rain water during rainy seasons. During eighties pollution control norms were not stringent in India. But there are known15 chemical, physical and biological methods to deal with the problems of the tailings dams which were being tried in other countries during eighties. Chemical methods involve spraying of polymers over the surface of the dam while physical methods involve laying solid flooring using grit or grit and cement over the surface of the tailings dam. Biological methods involve growing vegetative cover over the surface of the tailings dam. But in the case of old tailings dam of Zawar it is indeed difficult to grow vegetation due to the presence of heavy metals in amounts that are toxic to the plants. Ameliorating the surface of the old tailings dam with farm yard manure and planting species that are hard and heavy metal tolerant allowed the growth of plants16 which acted as pioneers. Continued efforts allowed the growth secondary vegetation and today there is forest like lush green vegetation on the old tailings dam of Zawar mines. The area of the study of growing vegetation on disturbed lands is today known as phyto remediation. Phyto remediation is a compensatory technology that takes care of the negative effects of commercial technologies. Industries should think of green compensatory technologies to over come the industrial pollution much ahead say at the project planning stage itself. Utilization of Industrial wastes should be a part of the Environment Management Plan. Our planet has capacity to heal herself from the hurt caused by unnatural human activities but that capacity is not unlimited and the process of healing is too slow. Hence when a technology is being commercialized it must be coupled with compensatory technologies that can take care of the damage to the environment by the technology being commercialized.
Zero Poverty Society
If the socio-economic process a society under goes is natural, then the wealth of individuals in the society will follow natural distribution having the poor and the rich at the opposite tail ends of the bell shaped normal distribution curve. Some industries achieved zero defect production by consciously driving the production process. It must also be possible to increase the mean wealth of a society by eliminating all “assignable causes” that lead to poverty. It must be possible to achieve a zero poverty society [ZPS] by consciously driving the socio economic processes through human effort and intervention. ZPS is a state where healthy food and access to higher education are basic human rights. Achieving ZPS is the first step towards the evolution of the altruistic society. Capitalist economy is an open ended chain of commercial activities where at one end of the chain profits [wealth] are polarized and poverty at the other end. Poverty can be eliminated by recycling some of the accumulated profits back to the system. The profits come from the natural resource being exploited, the employees [including those who developed the technology], vendors and contractors who participate in the commercial activities and finally the customers and the end users. Recycling the profits to the sources makes the economy a living net work economy. Modern capitalism indeed learned recycling some of the profits in terms of production incentive to the work force or through schemes like employee stock option plan. Large industries are spending money on community development to ensure the growth of the people living around the industries. Organizations interested in achieving ZPS should  educate the people and improve the literacy to cent per cent  build the capacity of the individual members of the society  develop a sense of cooperative living in all respects  empower women and  educate people on the need to control population. Spread of poverty can be a potential cause of the self destruction of human society. Human beings have sufficient free will and hence can eliminate many of the causes that may lead to the extinction of humanity provided they over come their selfishness and ego at the level of the individual and unnecessary competition at the level of groups/ Nations. Lord Buddha is quoted17 to have said, “All selfishness and corruption, all violence, all exploitation come from that limited attitude of the ‘self’. That attitude is harmless for a baby but not for a grown-up person. We have to respect other people, respond to other people, work for them and help them. There is so much need for intercommunication in society.”
The genomic structure [of higher organism] having more AT pairs than GC pairs compels us to think that there is latent consciousness in the genome and genopsych7 the self programming property of genome is the driving force behind the evolution of species. Similarly the evolution of human societies is driven by conscious self developing nature [genopsychic] of the society. Mass consciousness can be engineered based on the fact that all of us tend to be more altruistic by nature though we are selfish to some extent or the other. Selfishness can be self controlled consciously. People should be educated about the real dangers of the very possibility of the extinction of entire humanity if we fail to self control. Democracy permits engineering of socio political consciousness towards altruistic societies. Socio – political consciousness is about the individuals of a society being aware of the socio political conditions that are governing the society of which the individual is a part. Lack of socio political consciousness weakens the self developing forces [genopsychic] of the society which stagnates or leads towards disintegration [increase of entropy] of the society. See for example, Indian society just before the British rule.
Human societies are self developing but selfish groups within the society may retard and stagnate a society. Stagnation means blocking of the self development of the human society. Lack of openness of knowledge stagnates the society. Communication is the nervous system of the society18 according to Harris. Variations [or variability] are natural in any process and the process of evolution of human societies is no exception. Human societies that started off as hunters and gatherers have evolved into different forms of social, economic and political systems and into different religions or sub sects/denominations. Disintegration of societies is entropic [disorder] in nature. However human societies are not only physical systems but are also biological and hence genopsychic factors lead them towards integration that is self development. Cooperation among different forms of the human society makes the society altruistic. Altruism is the direction of the evolution of the human societies. Altruistic society is a peaceful and non killing society. Unfortunately selfishness is the other face of altruism and hence a society should be conscious enough to control selfishness at all levels. Some scientists argue that there is nothing called altruism and if at all, there is only false or pseudo altruism. No doubt that the origin of altruism is selfishness. Altruism is the selfishness of the group [colony/flock/herd/society] and if this is not true then there will be no society. Hence altruism exists and is an evolutionary requirement. The evolution of human societies is further subjected to “modulation of evolutionary forces19 by social processes”. The social processes that may modulate evolution of human societies may originate either from selfishness or from altruism.
Jing Chen explains20 how the following thermodynamic equation may be used in understanding social systems from the free energy perspective.
F = E – TS
Where F is the free energy the energy available to perform the work, E the total energy of the system, T is the temperature and S is the entropy.
The equation of free energy may be re written in genopsychic terms as follows.
F = B + i G
Where F is the free will which imparts freedom to think creatively and take decisions, B is the bound will, the programs at Genetic, Physiological and Psychological levels / phases. For example blood circulation and heart beat are controlled by programs at physiological level/phase. Then i is the self awareness that imparts I-ness to us that may be measured in degrees of consciousness and G is the genopsych, the self programming property [similar to or same as entropy with respect to physical systems] of the living forms/ systems. At i tending to 0 or G tending to 0, F is G as in the case of a virus which is said to be sub living or at the boundary of living and non living. Needless to say that the free will [and also B] of the species increased as they evolved into higher organism.This author believes that the proposed equation of genopsych is applicable to all living systems viz genome, cell, colonies of bacteria to human societies.
The evolution of human societies is governed not only by the physical factors but also by genopsych. The individual traits selfishness and altruism of human beings are independent of the economic system a society follows. Thus the evolution of human societies can be catalyzed by modulating socio political consciousness of the members of the society.
Evidently human societies are evolving towards altruistic societies [the directionality] driven by genopsych [self development] and the modern science has given the required impetus. There can be multiple paths of evolution. The process of evolution of altruistic societies can be retarded and stagnated by selfish groups. The right to own private property is a big retarder of the evolution of human societies towards altruism as such ownership enhances the selfishness of the individuals [entropic]. Cooperative or net work economies are alternatives to pure forms of capitalism or socialism.
Human beings are a part of the Nature and need to evolve along the Nature and moving against Nature will put “The Earth in Crisis”. This demands development of technologies based on [a] renewable resources [b] natural processes. In fact over exploitation of non renewable resources has already caused much damage to the environment, for example global warming. The demand for energy and the non renewable resources will reduce if the population is controlled/ reduced by a conscious effort through education of the masses.
Democratic State is the key for faster evolution of human societies for it allows engineering socio – political consciousness to modulate the evolution of human societies in its natural direction. Unfortunately “the crisis of our planet” is not an issue in the general elections. Political parties need to include their approach to the protection our planet in their manifestos voluntarily.
The evolution from human societies down to DNA molecules is a continuous process and is not only concurrent but also in tandem with the evolution of nature.
George Wald, 1980, The origin of life, Molecules to living cells, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
Philip C Hanawalt, 1980, Protein Structure and Function: Assembly of Viruses and Ribosomes, ibid.
Ernest Jones, 1960, Life and work of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 2, Basic Books Inc. New York.
Noam Chomsky, “Clash of civilizations?”, Seminar, January, 2002.
Martha Harnecker, Rebuilding the Left, Translated by Janet Duckworth, Danish Books, Delhi. 2007.
Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, Toronto, 1987.
Zaidi, A., SPC concepts, Methodologies and Tools, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 1995.
Yeremin, E.N., Fundamentals of Chemical Thermodynamics, MIR Publishers, Moscow, 1983.
Marx, K and Engels, F, The First Indian War of Independence 1857-1859, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1978.
Sekhar. DMR, Aery. NC, in the proceedings of National Conference on Lead, Zinc and Cadmium at Workplace Environment and Healthcare, Lead Zinc Information Centre, New Delhi, 1982-83.
Sekhar, DMR and Jhakhu, MR., Primary Vegetative Growth on an Old Tailings Dam-Zawar Mines, Minerals and Environment, Vol.5, 1983.
Thomas, A Harris, ‘I am OK – you are OK “, Sterling paper backs, New Delhi, 1969.
Ramachandran. R, the Genetics of caste, Front line, Volume 18 – Issue 12, Jun. 09 – 22, 2001.
Jing Chen, Understanding Social Systems: A Free Energy Perspective, JHT, Vol. 5, pp. 1-6, January | 2009.